File system Architecture

It is method of storing the data in an organized fashion on the disk. Every partition on the disk except MBR and extended partition should be assigned with some file system in order to make them store the data. File system is applied on the partition by formatting it with a particular type of file system.

Types of file systems:

(a)  Disk file systems:

--->A disk file system is a file system designed for the storage of file on a data storage device, most commonly a disk drive, which might be directly or indirectly connected to the computer.

EX: FAT, FAT32, NTFS, CDFS, HFS, ext2, ext3, ISO 9660

(b)  Network file systems:

--->A network file system is a file system that acts as a client for a remote file access protocol, providing access to files on a server.


(C) Virtual file system:

--->The purpose of VFS is to allow client applications to access different types of concrete file systems in a uniform way.

It can be used to bridge the differences in windows, Mac OS and Unix file system, so that applications can access files on local file systems of those types without having to know what types of file system they are accessing.

--> File system Hierarchy system:


/:  This is top level working directory.  It is parent directory for all other directories. It is called as   “ROOT” directory. It is represented by forward slash (/)

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Root:  It is home directory for root user (Super user). It provides working environment for root user.

Home:  It is home directory for other users.  It provides working environment for other users (Except root).

Bin:  (Binary files) : It contains commands used by all users.

Sbin:   (Super user binary files) : It contains commands used by only super user (root).

Boot: It contains system bootable files, boot loader information, kernel related information for LINUX

etc:  It contains all system configuration files.


Usr:  By default soft wares are installed in / usr directory.

(UNIX sharable resources).

Opt: It is a optional directory for users. It contains third party soft wares.

Dev:  It contains all device files information. Similar to device manager of windows. In UNIX/LINUX every device treated as a file.

 Var: It is containing variable files information like mails, pring, log files.

Mnt:  It is default removable media working directory. It is empty by default.

Lib: It contains library files which are used by OS. It is similar to dell files of windows.

Tmp:  It contains temporary files information.

Media:  It contains all of removable media like CD-ROM, pen drive.

Proc:  It contains process files.

Its contents are not permanent, they keep changing

Its also called as virtual directory.

Its file contain useful information used by OS.

Like      /proc/meminfo………


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