File system

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File system Architecture

It is a method of storing the data in an organized fashion on the disk. Every partition on the disk except MBR and the extended partition should be assigned with some file system to make them store the data. The file system is applied to the partition by formatting it with a particular type of file system.

Types of file systems

Disk file systems: A disk file system is a file system designed for the storage of a file on a data storage device, most commonly a disk drive, which might be directly or indirectly connected to the computer.

Ex: FAT, FAT32, NTFS, CDFS, HFS, ext2, ext3, ISO 9660

Network file systems: A network file system is a file system that acts as a client for a remote file access protocol, providing access to files on a server.


Virtual file system: The purpose of VFS is to allow client applications to access different types of concrete file systems uniformly. It can be used to bridge the differences in Windows, Mac OS, and Unix file system, so that applications can access files on local file systems of those types without having to know what types of the file system they are accessing.

File system Hierarchy system

file system

This is a top-level working directory.  It is a parent directory for all other directories. It is called as   “ROOT” directory. It is represented by forward-slash (/)

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Root: It is the home directory for the root users (Superuser). It provides a working environment for the root user.

Home: It is the home directory for other users.  It provides a working environment for other users (except root).

Bin: (Binary files): It contains commands used by all users.

Sbin: (Superuser binary files): It contains commands used by the only superuser (root).

Boot: It contains system bootable files, boot loader information, kernel related information for LINUX

etc: It contains all system configuration files. /etc/hosts,/etc/resolv.conf

Usr: By default soft wares are installed in / usr directory. (UNIX sharable resources).

Opt: It is an optional directory for users. It contains third party soft wares.

Dev: It contains all device files information. Similar to devise manager of windows. In UNIX/LINUX every device is treated as a file.  

Var: It is containing variable files information like emails, print, log files.

Mnt: It is the default removable media working directory. It is empty by default.

Lib: It contains library files which are used by OS. It is similar to the dell files of windows.

Tmp: It contains temporary files of information.

Media: It contains all of the removable media like CD-ROM, pen drive.

Proc: It contains process files. Its contents are not permanent, they keep changing It's also called a virtual directory. Its file contains useful information used by OS. Like      /proc/meminfo……… /proc/cpuinfo…………


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