PostgreSQL Tutorial for Beginners

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PostgreSQL is a highly reliable and robots ORDBMS – Object Relational Database Management system known for its excellent performance. Most organizations have adopted it to manage their data recently. Several trials have emphasized the power of these compelling management features, and PostgreSQL has exhibited a proficient execution rate with zero crashes. Even at the highest database load, it has performed excellently, making it the best database management system for several organizations. Managing the database has helped businesses track their performances and profit to a remarkable extent.

Getting started with PostgreSQL can be challenging, so we have brought you a guide specially planned for beginners! The new object-relational database management system is worth exploring with its excellent logical and relation features, making it the most reliable, robust, and efficient system.

PostgreSQL Tutorial - Table of Contents:

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL is a powerful open-source ORDBMS (Object-Relational Database Management System). It was introduced in 1996 and has become one of the world's most popular open-source database management systems. PostgreSQL is known for its reliability and efficient performance. PostgreSQL is highly scalable and can be used in single-node and multi-node environments. It supports various data duplication options, including streaming, logical, and cascading duplication, which ensures its high availability and data longevity feature.


Features of PostgreSQL:

1) Object Relational Database:

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database that can store complex data structures in a relational database. It supports data types such as integers, floating point numbers, strings, date/time values, and other common data types and objects. 

2) Stored Procedures & Triggers:

PostgreSQL allows users to write stored procedures and triggers in SQL and other procedural languages such as PL/pgSQL, PL/Tcl, and PL/Perl. These features enable developers to extend the database functionality and automate tasks. 

3) Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC): 

PostgreSQL utilizes a Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC) system, which allows multiple versions of the same data to existing in the database. This makes it easier to maintain data consistency and allows for better scalability and performance. 

4) User-Defined Functions:

PostgreSQL supports user-defined functions (UDFs). UDFs allow users to write tasks to extend the database and enable complex data manipulation. 

5) Database Replication:

PostgreSQL supports replication, which is the ability to replicate data from one database to another. This feature allows for better scalability, high availability, and improved data integrity. 

6) Server-Side Programming:

PostgreSQL supports server-side programming, allowing developers to write custom logic and execute it on the server. This enables developers to build custom applications on top of the database. 

7) Security:

PostgreSQL offers a wide range of security features, including authentication, access control, encryption, and auditing. These features can help protect a database from malicious attacks and unauthorized access.

Overall, PostgreSQL is a powerful and versatile database management system well-suited for many use cases and applications.


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History of PostgreSQL:


PostgreSQL often referred to as "Postgres," was created in 1986 by a computer science professor named Michael Stonebraker at the University of California, Berkeley. The original version of the software was called "Ingres" and was designed to be a more robust and capable alternative to existing relational databases at the time.


In 1994, a team of graduate students and Stonebraker continued to improve and develop the software by adding new features and capabilities. The software was also renamed to "Postgres" to reflect its capabilities and new direction as an object-relational database management system.

The software released an open source under the name "PostgreSQL" to reflect its origins as a derivative of the Ingres project in 1996. The open-source release of PostgreSQL was a turning point for the project as it allowed a community of developers and users to contribute to the development of the software and provide support.

#2000s - Today

PostgreSQL continued to evolve and improve over the next decade with its new features in SQL, with improved performance and scalability added. In recent years, PostgreSQL has been widely considered one of the most potent and capable open-source databases, known for its reliability, robustness, and performance.


Installation Process of PostgreSQL:

Follow the steps to install PostgreSQL so that your experience a great database system: 

Step 1: Download the software for your system. You can download the installer for your operating system from the official website. (

After downloading the installer, follow the below steps to complete the PostgreSQL installation:

Step 1. a: Click on the next button.

Step 1. b: Select the installation folder for PostgreSQL to be installed and then click Next.

Step 2: To install, choose the components according to your requirement and click the Next button.

Step 3: Choose the database directory and click Next to store the data.

Step 4: Set up the password for the database superuser (Postgres) 

Step 5: Create the port for PostgreSQL. Do make sure that other applications do not use this port. If you need clarification, leave it to default and click Next. 

Step 6: Select the default locale utilized by the database and click on the Next button.

Step 7: To start the installation, click the Next button.

Hold back, as it might take a few minutes for the installation to complete.

Step 8: Click on the Finish button to complete the PostgreSQL installation. 

Note: To connect to the database, you will need to use a client tool such as pgAdmin or the command-line tool PSQL.

You will need the information:

  • Host: The IP address or hostname of the machine where the database is running
  • Port: The port number on which the database is listening (default is 5432)
  • Database: Connect to the name of the database.
  • User: The username you want to connect to.
  • Password: The password for the user.

Once installed, you need to start the PostgreSQL service to connect to the database.


Read these latest PostgreSQL Interview Questions that help you grab high-paying jobs


Working Process:

Creating a new database is simple. Once connected, you can use the command in the command line of your choice (e.g., SQL Shell or PSQL) and type in 'CREATE DATABASE [DATABASE_NAME].' And voila, you've got yourself a new database. On Windows, you can use the Services app to start the service.

  • To create a table in the database, you can use the command "CREATE TABLE table_name (column_name data_type constraint, ....);."
  • To update data in a table, you can use the command "UPDATE table_name SET column1 = new_value WHERE condition;."
  • To retrieve data from a table, you can use the command "SELECT column1, column2, ... FROM table_name WHERE condition;."
  • To delete data from a table, use the "DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;"
  • To insert data into a table, you can use the command "INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, ...);"
  • To populate this new database, input data from other sources, such as spreadsheets or text files. There are multiple ways to do this, depending on your operating system. If you're using Windows, consider using "COPY" commands or BCP Utility Tool. Alternatively, if you prefer MacOS, look into PGAdmin's import option.
  • The next step is learning how to query within PostgreSQL—which is where most of your work of an introductory SELECT statement: "SELECT * FROM table_name;" This retrieves all columns and rows of data stored in the specified table_name. You can also refine your search by selecting specific columns instead of all of them.
  • While we're on the topic of querying, let's talk about transactions. A transaction ensures that any changes made during one operation remain permanent even if something goes wrong later. To start a transaction, use the "BEGIN;" command followed by your code. End your trade with either a COMMIT or ROLLBACK command.


Why is PostgreSQL best for you?

PostgreSQL is an incredible database system that provides powerful functionality for its users. It allows you to store, organize and retrieve data quickly and accurately. And since it's open-source, you won't have to worry about expensive licensing fees or complicated setup processes. You'll be able to focus on what matters most, i.e., creating outstanding results. Some of its valuable features include:

  • PostgreSQL is known for its ability to handle large-scale enterprise environments.
  • It can manage a large amount of data and supports advanced features such as geospatial data, JSON, and full-text search. 
  • It supports a wide range of programming languages, making it the perfect choice for all developers.
  • It has built-in support for stored procedures, triggers, and resilience. 
  • Its robust security features, including support for role-based access control, auditing, and encryption, give good privacy to your database. 
  • It has a large and active community of developers and users who contribute to the development of the software and provide support.

With PostgreSQL, you can produce high-quality output with fewer other databases like Workday, Salesforce, SAP, etc. Above mentioned are just a few examples of the many features and functionalities that PostgreSQL can offer. 


Facts about PostgreSQL:

With its extensive features and potentiality, PostgreSQL can be used for all sorts of projects, from small tasks to large-scale enterprise solutions. Many large organizations and companies use PostgreSQL. Examples of the many large organizations and companies that use PostgreSQL are Apple, Cisco, IMDb, NASA, Paypal, Uber, Spotify, and many more. 

Different companies use PostgreSQL for other purposes. 

  • Apple uses PostgreSQL for the Siri voice recognition system, and Instagram uses it to store and retrieve user data. 
  • NASA uses it to store and retrieve data from satellite and weather monitoring systems.
  • Paypal uses PostgreSQL to store and retrieve financial data.
  • Uber uses it to store and retrieve data on drivers, riders, and trips. 
  • Spotify uses PostgreSQL to store and retrieve data on songs, users, and playlists.


Is PostgreSQL suitable for beginners?

PostgreSQL is a powerful and flexible database management system, enabling users to write with human emotion while being logical. Its syntax is clear and concise, making it easy for beginners to understand the technical terms easily.

Furthermore, PostgreSQL allows you to tailor your queries and results to fit the specific needs of any age group or reading level. Its ability to limit words and phrases makes it ideal for communicating complex ideas to younger audiences. With its comprehensive range of features and capabilities, PostgreSQL can be used for all sorts of projects, from small tasks to large-scale enterprise solutions. 

PostgreSQL is a good option for beginners who want to learn about relational databases and SQL. It is a powerful and feature-rich database management system used globally by almost all industries. It has an enormous community of developers and users who can help you learn from basic to advance effortlessly.

Another significant advantage of PostgreSQL is that it is open-source and free to use, modify, and distribute. It also makes it a cost-effective option for learning and experimenting with databases, as the cost is a significant concern for beginners. PostgreSQL also has a simple and intuitive SQL interface, which can make it easy to learn how to work with relational databases.



PostgreSQL is widely considered one of the world's most influential and robust open-source databases. Its broad range of functionalities and features increase its usability in almost every industry. Since it has a large and active community of developers and users who continue to contribute to its development and provide support, it is rising extensively. Approx. 6099 companies across the world are using PostgreSQL as their database management system. The number might seem countable. However, it includes the world's top companies successfully earning millions. If you are planning to switch to PostgreSQL, you are correct.

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