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Basic commands

List of Basic Commands in Unix

#  –> root user prompt.

$  –>  user working prompt.

$ log name  –> displays current user name.

$ pwd  –>  present working directory.

$ date  –>  Display current date & time.

$cal  –>  Displays current month calendar.

$cal 2020  –> particular year total months.

$cal 04 2020  –>  2020 year 04th month calendar.

$who  –>  To display the information about all the users who have logged into the system.

$ who am i  –>  It displays current user name.

$ finger  –>  It displays complete information about all the users who are logged in.

$ uptime  –>  How log server up & running, how many users connected and load avg time.


$ which (Or)  $ wher    –>    Given command location

EX: Which date


$tty    –>     Terminal position.

$df      –>    Displays disk free size

$du      –>    Disk usage information

$clear    –>     To clear the screen


Creating files:

  • Cat (concatenate): It is used to create a file and display, appending the contents of a file
  • To create a file:


Hello world

Ctrl+D (To save the file)

  • To Display the content of the files:



$cat filename


  • To append the data in the existing file:

$cat >>filename



Ctrl +D (To save)


  • Touch: To create multiple files but all are empty.

Syn:  $touch file1 file2 file3 ……………..filen

               Ex: $touch file1 file2 file3

  • Ls: Displays the contents of a directory.



–    r    –>Reverse

–   i    –>inode

 -a  –> hidden

 –   l  –> long list

-R    –>Recursively

–   h  –> human readable


Mkdr: Creates a directory.

Syn:  mkdir <Dirname>

$mkdir linux

  • To create multiple directories:

$ mkdir dir1 dir2 dir3 —————–dirn

  • To create a nested directory:

$ mkdir –P world/asia/india/ap/hyd


  • To check: $ tree world


$   ls – R

  • Navigation commands:

Cd:  Changes the current location.

Cd.. —>To go one level back

cd../.. —> To go two levels back

cd —>To change user’s home directory.

EX: $ cd world

$ ls

Note:  The trailing slash (1) is optional when you’re using the cd command. It indicates that the name being specified is a directory.

EX:  $cd Documents/

  • CP: Copies files or directories form one location to another.

Syn: CP [options] source destination

— R   —>  copies recursively

— f     —> Copies forcefully

— V  —>  provides verbose output


EX:       $ CP file1 file2   ————>  one file to another.

$CP file1 file2 Documents   ————>   Multiple files into directory.

$CP  -R Documents unix ————>one directory to another.

$ CP –rvf Documents unix world/asia/india/ap/hyd

$ CP /var/log/messags ————>  (.) represents current location.

Learn more about Linux Interview Questions in this blog post. 
Interested in mastering Linux ? Check out this blog post to learn more Linux Training Videos
  • MV: Moves or renames files and directories.

Syn:   mv [options} SOURCE DEST

— V   –> verbose

  • Rename the file by specifying the file name & new name of the files

Mv messages messages.bak


  • Move it to the test directory for safe keeping:

Mv messages. Bak test/

$ls test

  • Rm: Deletes files or directories

Syn:  rm [options} FILE

—    i  —> interactive

—   r —> Recursively

—   f  —> Forcefully

  • Delete the messages.bak file:

$cd test

$rm   – I  messages. Bak

  • Delete the test directory:

$ cd ..

$ rm  – rf test/

  • File: Displays the type of a file

Syn:  file <file name>

Ex:  $ file test1

Test1: empty

$ file /etc/passwd

Password : ASCII test.

For indepth understanding of Linux click on

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