DevOps Interview Questions And Answers
Q1. What might you check If a Linux-manufacture server all of a sudden begins getting moderate?
Ans. In the event that a Linux-manufacture server all of a sudden begins getting moderate, you will check for following three things
Q2. What is DevOps?
Ans. It is a newly emerging term in IT field, which is nothing but a practice that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of both software developers and other information technology (IT) professionals. It focuses on delivering software product faster and lowering the failure rate of releases.
Q3. Name the popular scripting language of DevOps?
Q4. Discuss your experience building bridges between IT Ops, QA and development?
Ans. DevOps is all about effective communication and collaboration. I’ve been able to deal with production issues from the development and operations sides, effectively straddling the two worlds. I’m less interested in finding blame or playing the hero than I am with ensuring that all of the moving parts come together.
Q5. What types of testing are needed?
Ans. Software teams will often look for the “fair weather” path to system completion; that is, they start from an assumption that software will usually work and only occasionally fail. I believe to practice defensive programming in a pragmatic way, which often means assuming that the code will fail and planning for those failures. I try to incorporate unit test strategy, use of test harnesses, early load testing; network simulation, A/B and multivariate testing etc.
Q6. Which scripting languages do you think are most important for a DevOps engineer?
Ans. As far as scripting languages go, the simpler the better. In fact, the language itself isn’t as important as understanding design patterns and development paradigms such as procedural, object-oriented, or functional programming.
Q7. How do you expect you would be required to multitask as a DevOps professional?
Ans. Focus attention on bridging communication gaps between Development and Operations teams.
Understand system design from an architect’s perspective, software development from a developer’s perspective, operations and infrastructure from the perspective of a seasoned Systems Administrator.
Execute – to be able to actually do what needs to be done.
Q8. What testing is necessary to ensure that a new service is ready for production?
Ans. DevOps is all about continuous testing throughout the process, starting with development through to production. Everyone shares the testing responsibility. This ensures that developers are delivering code that doesn’t have any errors and is of high quality, and it also helps everyone leverage their time most effectively.
Q9. What’s a PTR in DNS?
Ans. Pointer records are used to map a network interface (IP) to a hostname. These are primarily used for reverse DNS. Reverse DNS is setup very similar to how normal (forward) DNS is setup. When you delegate the DNS forward, the owner of the domain tells the registrar to let your domain use specific name servers.
Q10. Describe two-factor authentication?
Ans. Two-factor authentication is a security process in which the user provides two means of identification from separate categories of credentials; one is typically a physical token, such as a card, and the other is typically something memorized, such as a security code.
Q11. What other tools might help you in this role?
Ans. DevOps is so diverse and inclusive that it rarely ends with coding, testing and systems. A DevOps project might rely on database platforms like SQL training Hyderabad or NoSQL, data structure servers like Redis, or configuration and management issue tracking systems like Redmine. Web applications are popular for modern enterprises, making a background with Web servers, like Microsoft Internet Information Services, Apache Tomcat or other Web servers, beneficial. Make sure to bring across that you are familiar with Agile application lifecycle management techniques and tools.
Q12. Which are the top DevOps tools? Which tools have you worked on?
Ans. The most popular DevOps tools are mentioned below:
- Git: Version Control System tool
- Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool
- Selenium: Continuous Testing tool
- Puppet, Chef, Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tools
- Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool
- Docker: Containerization tool You can also mention any other tool if you want, but make sure you include the above tools in your answer. The second part of the answer has two possibilities:
Q13. How do DevOps tools work in collaboration?
Ans. The following workflow tells how the DevOps tools work cordially, and this workflow varies from organization to organization.
- The source code developed by the developers is handled by VCS tools like Git, Subversion etc..
- In Git tool, git archive or repository handles the code and modifications made in the code is saved to it.
- Jenkins picks the code from the archive with the help of a git plugin and builds it with the help of tools like Ant or Maven.
- Jenkins test the code in the testing environment which is configured by the puppet, and then it dispatches the code for installation on the production server.
- Tools like Nagios, Docker container do continuous monitoring and testing on the build.
Q14. What is the primary objective of DevOps?
Ans. The primary objective of DevOps is making changes to the final product instantly and achieving the required quality in the end product. DevOps also makes the operations team and development team collaborate to deliver a good quality product.
Q15. Explain Git Architecture?
- Git is a distributed version control system, it enables us to record the modifications of a file and facilitates us to revert to any specific change.
- Due to its distributed architecture, git has many advantages.one primary advantage is that developers can store the duplicate copy of project history on their hard disks instead of depending on the central server.
- when any changes are made to the existing files or created any new file, then we can share these changes with the teammates by sending these changes to their local repository through a remote repository. For this purpose, we can use “git pull” command.
- when we face server outrage, these local repositories are useful for sharing the information among the teammates.
Q16. Explain the implementation of continuous integration in DevOps?
Ans. Following the below four phases present in the continuous integration implementation:
- Commit: In this phase, new features or new modifications are integrated with the base code and with the help of Jenkins tool unit and sanity testing is performed on the new code.
- Build: After the code is integrated and tested, the second phase is to build the code with the help of Dockers tool.
- Test: In this phase, alpha and beta deployments take place to check the performance of the new builds and to perform manual testing on the application.
- Production Deployment: This is the phase, where application or product goes live, after testing the build successfully.
Q17. What are the roles of DevOps?
- DevOps Architect: DevOps architect is the leader of the DevOps team and is responsible for the whole DevOps process.
- DevOps Engineer: This person should have expertise in Agile, SCM, Version control and CI/CD and should be able to set up automation tools. A person who has skills in coding or scripting and brilliance to become deployment or system admin can perform this role.
Q18. What are the measures that successful DevOps involves?
- The first measure for DevOps success is reducing the delivery time which means the duration for the project item to enter into a production environment.
- with the help of agile methodology, we have to decrease the production-level defects.
- we may face a situation in which deployments may get failed, to avoid this we should have a mechanism to go back to our previous version.
- DevOps should minimise Mean Time To Recover(MTTR) as it measures the average time required for the product to recover from the failure in the production environment.
- Performance of the application and number of bugs are the key measures for DevOps success. These two are depended on the quality of the application.
Q19. How does HTTP work? How does a web page appear in a browser?
Ans. Basically, to prove that you understand (at a high-level) the infrastructure you’ll be working with, as well as the ability to explain concepts to others. DevOps is about communication too, remember?
Q20. Tell me about the worst-run/best-run outage you’ve been a part of. What made it bad/well-run?
Ans. Take lessons from both failures and successes in dealing with outages. Remember, there's no shame in talking about the mistakes you've learned from.
Q21. How would you prepare for a migration from one platform to another?
Ans. Fairly self-explanatory, how do you handle transitions? How do you document the current state of your environment before moving, and how do you validate everything is as it should be after the fact?
Q22. How do you handle interruptions?
Ans. While it’s going to be your job to stop interruptions, how you deal with them now is important for getting an idea of if you know how to fix them quickly and if you know how to make devs and ops work together.
Q23. What different types of testing need to be carried out on a software system, and what tools would you use to achieve this testing?
Ans. For starters, you probably would want to test that your configurations are correct before and after making changes, and know-how to validate that your environments are all consistent.
Q24. Tell us about the CI tools that you are familiar with?
Ans. The premise of CI is to get feedback as early as possible because the earlier you get feedback, the less things cost to fix. Popular open-source tools include Hudson, Jenkins, CruiseControl and CruiseControl.NET. Commercial tools include ThoughtWorks’ Go, Urbancode’s Anthill Pro, Jetbrains’ Team City and Microsoft’s Team Foundation Server.