Welcome to the MongoDB Tutorials. The objective of these tutorials is to get in depth understanding of MongoDB Database. In these tutorials, we will cover various MongoDB functions with examples. The tutorial starts with overivew of MongoDB, Installation of MongoDB and later we will cover various functions such as find, query, update and delete. Apart from theses we will also cover Performance and Tuning aspects of MongoDB.

In addition to these tutorials, we will also cover common issues, Interview questions and How To's of MongoDB.

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a powerful, flexible, and scalable data store. It combines the ability to scale out with many of the most useful features of relational databases, such as secondary indexes, range queries, and sorting. MongoDB is also incredibly featureful: it has tons of useful features such as built-in support for MapReduce-style aggregation and geospatial indexes.

There is no point in creating a great technology if it’s impossible to work with, so a lot of effort has been put into making MongoDB easy to get started with and a pleasure to use. MongoDB has a developer-friendly data model, administrator-friendly configuration options, and natural-feeling language APIs presented by drivers and the database shell. MongoDB tries to get out of your way, letting you program instead of worrying about storing data.


MongoDB Overview

MongoDB is a cross-platform, document oriented database that provides, high performance, high availability, and easy scalability. MongoDB works on concept of collection and document.


Database is a physical container for collections. Each database gets its own set of files on the file system. A single MongoDB server typically has multiple databases.


Collection is a group of MongoDB documents. It is the equivalent of an RDBMS table. A collection exists within a single database. Collections do not enforce a schema. Documents within a collection can have different fields. Typically, all documents in a collection are of similar or related purpose.


A document is a set of key-value pairs. Documents have dynamic schema. Dynamic schema means that documents in the same collection do not need to have the same set of fields or structure, and common fields in a collection's documents may hold different types of data.

Below given table shows the relationship of RDBMS terminology with MongoDB


Sample document

Below given example shows the document structure of a blog site which is simply a comma separated key value pair.


_id: ObjectId(7df78ad8902c)

title: 'MongoDB Overview',

description: 'MongoDB is no sql database',

by: 'tutorials point',

url: 'http://www.tutorialspoint.com',

tags: ['mongodb', 'database', 'NoSQL'],

likes: 100,

comments: [



message: 'My first comment',

dateCreated: new Date(2011,1,20,2,15),

like: 0




message: 'My second comments',

dateCreated: new Date(2011,1,25,7,45),

like: 5




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_id is a 12 bytes hexadecimal number which assures the uniqueness of every document. You can provide _id while inserting the document. If you didn't provide then MongoDB provide a unique id for every document. These 12 bytes first 4 bytes for the current timestamp, next 3 bytes for machine id, next 2 bytes for process id of mongodb server and remaining 3 bytes are simple incremental value.

MongoDB Advantages

Any relational database has a typical schema design that shows number of tables and the relationship between these tables. While in MongoDB there is no concept of relationship

Advantages of MongoDB over RDBMS

-Schema less : MongoDB is document database in which one collection holds different different documents. Number of fields, content and size of the document can be differ from one document to another.

-Structure of a single object is clear

-No complex joins

-Deep query-ability. MongoDB supports dynamic queries on documents using a document-based query language that's nearly as powerful as SQL


-Ease of scale-out: MongoDB is easy to scale

-Conversion / mapping of application objects to database objects not needed

-Uses internal memory for storing the (windowed) working set, enabling faster access of data

Why should use MongoDB

Document Oriented Storage : Data is stored in the form of JSON style documents

Index on any attribute

Replication & High Availability


Rich Queries

Fast In-Place Updates

Professional Support By MongoDB

Where should use MongoDB?

Big Data

Content Management and Delivery

Mobile and Social Infrastructure

User Data Management

Data Hub