Welcome to the SAP HR Tutorials by SAP HR Experts. In these tutorials we will cover basic introduction and go through the all the concepts such as Marketing, Finance, Time Management, Personnel Management etc. Apart from the tutorials, we will also cover common Interview questions, Issues and How To articles.
- Interview Questions in SAP HR
- Benefits in SAP HR
- Organisational Management in SAP HR
- Payroll in SAP HR
- Recruitment in SAP HR
- Personnel Administration in SAP HR
- SAP HR Interview Questions and Answers
- Provisioning & replication in SAP Hana
- Comparison of Replication methods in SAP Hana
- Semantic Layers in SAP Hana
- SAP Bank Analyzer rapid- deployment solution for financial reporting with SAP HANA
- SAP Deposits Management Transaction History analysis With SAP HANA
- Release Procedure for PR With classification In Sap MM
SAP HR Introduction
SAP Human Resources (HR) resource management system solution is one of the largest modules in the SAP R/3 system which enables the effective management of information about the people within an organization and integrates this information within external system and SAP’s modules. We define an organization as an individual enterprise that works with sub departments like HR, Marketing, Finance, R&D etc. For any organization employees or Human Resources are considered the most powerful resource. So to maintain the employee related data we require one system which ensures accuracy and consistent within the organization.
What is Coding Block
The coding block is a tool used to enter additional account assignments, for example, cost center, order or project. The coding block is supported by Accounting (AC) and used by other application components such as Human Resources (HR), which include the AC screen as a subscreen.
The tool enables HR users to enter and validate additional account assignments in posting transactions. It can only be used in the R/3 System.
What is SAP HR Module?
SAP HR module enables companies to effectively manage information about the people in their organization. It is integrated with other SAP modules and external systems. From the Organization Management perspective, companies can model a business hierarchy, the relationships of employees to various business units and the reporting structure among employees.
The Personnel Administration (PA) sub module helps employers to track employee master data, work schedules, salary and benefits information. The Personnel Development (PD) functionality focuses on employees' skills, qualifications and career plans. Finally, the Time Evaluation and Payroll sub modules process attendance and absences, gross salary and tax calculations, and payments to employees and third party vendors.
What are the main modules of SAP HR?
The SAP Human Capital Management (HCM) contains all the process are:
Workforce Process Management
Personnel time management and evaluation
That includes the following processes:
Employee performance management
SAP System Navigation
Before you log on, make sure you know:
-Your client number
-Your user ID
If you want to work in a language other than English, make sure you know the language key for your desired language. For more information, contact your system administrator.After you have entered data in a field, you can move the cursor to the beginning of the next field by pressing the TAB key.
If you have set the Autotab option, you do not have to press the TAB key if you enter the maximum number of characters possible in a field. For example, the maximum number of characters you can enter in the Client field is three. If you enter 001 in the Client field, the cursor automatically moves to the beginning of the next field.
If you are logging on for the first time, see Logging On the First Time [Seite 55].
If you have logged on previously, but cannot remember how:...
-Check the Client field. This field may already contain a default client number. You can either accept the client number, or change it by typing over it. To move the cursor to the Client field, press the TAB key.
-If necessary, move the cursor to the User ID field by pressing the TAB key. In the User ID field, enter your user ID. To move the cursor to the Password field, press the TAB key.
-In the Password field, enter your password.As you type your password, the asterisks remain in the field, and only the cursor moves. As a security measure, the system does not display what you type.
-To display screens, menus, and fields in a language other than English, move the cursor to the Language field by pressing the TAB key.
-Enter the language key for the desired language.Choose Enter. In the standard SAP System, the Copyright dialog box appears. If you do not see this dialog box, check the status bar for a system message. You may have entered an incorrect client number, password, user ID, or language key.
-If this is the case, repeat steps 1 through.vIn the Copyright dialog box, choose Continue. If there are systemwide messages – for example, from your system administrator – the System Messages dialog box is displayed. After you have read the messages, choose Continue to close the dialog box.
You have successfully logged on to the SAP System.
You can log off from the SAP System from any screen.
-From the menu bar, choose System ® Log off.
-Click the button at the upper right-hand corner of the screen (if you only have one session running).
The Log off dialog box appears (as shown here), informing you that any data you have not yet saved will be lost if you proceed with logging off.
-If you are not certain that you have saved all of your data, and you do not want to log off after all, choose No. You return to the screen in which you were working.If you are certain that you have saved all of the data you want to save, choose Yes. All of your SAP System sessions close. You have successfully logged off.
R/3 Enterprise Navigation
Purpose: This section contains information on navigating on R/3 Enterprise screens using the keyboard.
To navigate on an R/3 Enterprise screen, you begin by moving the focus to the initial position.
To move between screen elements, you use the Tab key. To start a transaction, you can navigate to that transaction using the menus or you can enter the transaction code for that transaction directly into a transaction code field. Finally, you can use shortcut keys to access functions on the screen.
Navigating with the Tab Key
-When you are using R/3 Enterprise with the accessibility option selected, to navigate between user interface elements, use the Tab key. You use the tab key regardless of whether you are using assistive technology such as a screen reader or screen magnifier, or not.
-In R/3 Enterprise, you cannot navigate to freestanding text, graphics and icons that are not on pushbuttons, labels, or short descriptions using the Tab key. These elements are not included in the tab chain.
Starting a Transaction
In R/3 Enterprise, to start a transaction, select the transaction from a menu in the menu bar or from a menu tree. Alternatively, you can enter a transaction code for that transaction into the transaction code field (which is located in the toolbar).
Using Dropdown Lists
When you tab to a drop down list, if the list is enabled, proceed as follows:
Function User Action
-To open the list, press Alt + Down Arrow.
-To navigate between the items in the drop down list, use the Up and Down Arrow keys.
-To select an item from the drop down list, navigate to that item, then close the list by pressing Alt + Up Arrow (the item that has the focus when you close the list is selected).
Using the Menu Bar, Dropdown Menus, and Standard Toolbar
When you tab to the menu bar, to use the menus, proceed as follows:
Function User Action
-To move from menu to menu, use the Tab key
-To open a menu, press Enter.
-To move between the menu items on the open menu, use the Up and Down Arrow keys.
-To select a menu item, press Enter.
-If a menu item has a submenu, to open the submenu, use the Right Arrow key.
-To close a menu, tab out of the menu.
Use: When you tab to a pushbutton, you can execute the button’s function by pressing Enter.
Using Radio Buttons
Use: When you tab into a set of enabled radio buttons, you always tab to the currently selected radio button. To move between the radio buttons in the set, use the Up and Down Arrow keys.
Note that moving to a different radio button activates that radio button. To leave the radio button set, press Tab (the radio button that has the focus when you leave the set remains selected)
When you tab to a tree, proceed as follows:
Function User Action
-To move between the nodes in the tree, use the Tab key.
-To expand or collapse a node, use the Right and Left Arrow keys.
-To activate an end node, use the Enter key
Working with the SAP GUI SAP Easy Access
Use: The new SAP Easy Access user menu is the user-specific point of entry into the SAP System.
The user menu contains only those items – such as transactions, reports, and Web addresses – you need to perform your daily tasks.
If a user menu has been defined by your system administrator, it appears when you log on to the system. If you have not been assigned a user menu, or you need to access items that are not contained in your user menu: Open the SAP standard menu by choosing Menu SAP standard menu. You now have a complete overview of the SAP System you are currently working with. Use the navigation area to navigate to the items you need. Or, contact your system administrator. See System Administrator Functions.
On the SAP Easy Access initial screen, you can also:
Create a favorites list consisting of the transactions, files, and Web addresses you use most frequently.
SAP Easy Access Settings
To make SAP Easy Access settings, choose Extras ® Settings. The following dialog box appears:
Here, you can specify whether:
-Your favorites should appear before or after the menu
-Only your favorites, and not the menu, should appear
-Technical names of menu options should appear in the navigation area
-The SAP Easy Access graphic should appear on the right-hand side of the screen, as shown below:
You can hide this graphic by dragging the split bar from the center to the right hand edge of the screen. To deactivate the graphic completely, select Do not display image.
You can also define whether a user or an SAP standard menu should appear. To make this setting, choose either Menu User menu or Menu SAP standard menu.
Using the Navigation Area
You can expand and collapse menus in the navigation area by choosing the dropdown arrows to the left of the menu items, as in the example below:
To open an application in the navigation area:
-Double-click its node, or
-Choose Enter, or
-Choose Edit ® Execute
To run an application in a new session, choose Edit ® Run in new window. You can access the most important commands and functions in the navigation area by opening the context menu. To open the context menu, place the cursor on any item in the menu bar, and click the alternate mouse button.
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In SAP Easy Access, you can create a favorites list containing:
Inserting an Item from the SAP Standard or User Menu
Use drag and drop:
-Select an executable menu item using the mouse, and keep the mouse button pressed.
-Drag the item to the desired position in your favorites list, and release the mouse button.
-The new item appears below the position where you dropped it.
Or, use the menu bar:
-Select an executable item in the user menu.
-Choose Favorites ® Add.
-The new item appears at the end of your list.
Inserting a Transaction
-Choose Favorites ® Insert transaction.
-The following dialog box appears:
-Enter the transaction code, and choose Continue.
-The new item appears at the end of your list, and is automatically labeled with the transaction name.
Inserting a Web Address or a File
Choose Favorites ® Link or file
The following dialog box appears:
Enter a name and the Web address or file name, and choose Continue.
The Web address should start with http://...
The file name should have the format: X:\filename\filepath.
EXAMPLE: C:\Texts\SAP.doc. You can only use this function if you can access local files from your Web browser.
SAP Easy Access allows you to organize your favorites by:
-Creating folders in your favorites list
-Moving, renaming, or deleting favorites and folders
Choose Favorites ® Insert folder.
A dialog box appears. Enter a name, and choose Continue.
The new folder appears below the currently selected favorite.
Moving Favorites and Folders
To move favorites or folders within a hierarchy level:
-Select the favorite or folder you want to move.
-Choose Favorites ® Move ® Up/Down; or choose Move favorites downwards /Move favorites upwards.
-Repeat this step until the favorite or folder is where you want it.
To move favorites or folders between hierarchy levels, use drag and drop:
-Select the favorite or folder with the mouse, and keep the mouse button pressed.
-Drag the favorite or folder to the desired position in the favorites list, and release the mouse button.
-The favorite or folder appears below the position where you let it go.
Renaming Favorites and Folders
-Select the favorites or folders you want to rename.
-Choose Favorites ® Change.
-A dialog box appears. Enter a new name, and choose Continue.
Or: From the context menu, choose Change favorites. To open the context menu, click the alternate mouse button.
Deleting Favorites and Folders
-Select the favorites or folders you want to delete.
-Choose Favorites ® Delete.
Or: From the context menu, choose Delete favorites. To open the context menu, click the alternate mouse button.
When you remove a favorite from your favorites list, you are not actually deleting the respective file, program, or transaction; you are merely removing a link to that particular item.
The SAP Window
Use: The SAP window is the user interface to the SAP System.
The elements of a typical SAP window are shown below:
The standard toolbar contains buttons for performing common actions such as Save and Enter.
The functions assigned to the standard toolbar are listed below:
Radio Buttons and Checkboxes
To enter information in the SAP System, you must sometimes select among several options. In some cases, you can select only one option; in others, you can select more than one. When you can select only one, the options are identified by radio buttons:
When you can select more than one, the options are identified by checkboxes:
The SAP System displays dialog boxes when it:
-Requires more information before it can proceed
-Is providing information, such as messages or specific information about your current task
Before you can continue, you must choose an action from a dialog box. To choose an action, choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the dialog box.
A sample dialog box is shown here:
When you end a task without saving your data, or you choose a function that may cause you to lose data, the SAP System usually displays a dialog box in which you are asked to confirm or cancel your action.
Finding the Transaction Code for the Current Task
To find the transaction code for the current task:
Choose the arrow at the far right of the first status field, as in this example:
The transaction code appears, along with other system information:
Or, from the menu bar, choose System Status.
The System Status dialog box appears. You can find the transaction code for the current task in the Repository data frame of the SAP data screen area, as in this example
Entering a Transaction Code
To enter a transaction code and start a task:
Place the cursor in the command field. As of Release 4.6, the command field is closed by default. To display it, choose the arrow to the left of the Save icon:
The command field appears:
To hide it, choose the arrow to the right (outside) of the field. To display a list of the transactions you used last, choose the dropdown arrow at the right-hand end of the command field.
Enter /n (to end the current task) followed by a transaction code.
For example, for Transaction code PA30, you would enter /PA30, as shown here.
You exit the current task, and the initial screen of the new task appears. If you do not want to end your current task, but you need to do another task, you can create a new session.
Choosing a Transaction Code from the History List
You can display a list of the transaction codes processed since you logged on (called a history list), and then choose a transaction code from that list.
In the standard toolbar, open the command field. As of Release 4.6, the command field is closed by default. To display it, choose the arrow to the left of the Save icon:
The command field appears:
To hide it, choose the arrow to the right (outside) of the field.
Choose the dropdown arrow at the right-hand end of the command field.
The history list appears, displaying the transaction codes for all the transactions you have accessed in all of your sessions since you logged on. A sample history list is shown here.
Choose the desired transaction code.
This takes you to the initial screen of the task associated with that transaction code.
Canceling All the Data on a Screen
You may want to cancel, or delete, the data you just entered. For example, you are missing a piece of required data and cannot proceed until you locate it.
To cancel all the data you just entered on a screen, choose or choose Edit → Cancel.
The system removes the data on your current screen, closes the current screen, and returns you to the previous screen. Depending on the situation, the system may display a dialog box prompting you to confirm your action.
Saving the Data on a Screen
When you are working in a task that consists of several screens, the system temporarily stores the data that you enter on each screen. After you complete all the necessary screens in your task, you need to save your data.
To save the data for a task you are working in, choose or press CTRL + S.
The system processes the stored data and saves it in the appropriate database.
Ending a Task
Use: After you have completed a task, you will want to end it. Sometimes you may want to end a task without completing it.
To end a task: In the standard toolbar, choose or press Shift+F3.
If you have already saved the data, or if you have not entered any data, the system ends the task and returns to the initial screen of your application.
If you have entered data while working in this task, but have not saved it yet, the system displays a dialog box prompting you to save your data.
¡ To save the data and end the task, choose Yes.
¡ To end the task without saving the data, choose No.
¡ To return to the task, choose Cancel.
Each and every user will be given a ‘user name’ or a ‘user-id ‘
After giving the user name a password should be given for Authentication. And once it is correct then only the user can go into the system screens.
You can choose your choice language. All the messages and information on the system will be displayed in the language chosen. This language will have a two character width.
Eg: En for English
Some times a group of users will be given the same ‘user name’ and ‘password’. In this case, if one user in the group logs on and in the same time if another user tries to logon then the system will prompt a message. And the choice made here holds good. In this message, system gives 3 options which are given below: -
Continue with current log on and end other logons : -
If the user select this option, then his log on will be active and other users sessions logged on before will be ended. Here in this case any unsaved data will be lost by other users.
Continue with current log on without ending any other logons:-
If the user selects this, then both the users can work simultaneously.
Terminate this logon:-
If the user select this, then the user’s session logged on later will be ended and the former user’s session will be in use.
A user can create his own favorites by using right click on the mouse or by using drag and drop option.
Logically linked transaction. Roles are assigned to the users. One user can even have multiple roles.
/ n - Ends the current transaction
/ i - Ends the current session
/ o - Create new session
Eg: /N PA20 - Ends the Display the Masters Data transaction
/O PA30 - Opens Maintain HR Masters Data in a new session.
Maximum No. of Sessions allowed per log on : 6
F1 Key - Displays the meaning of fields and technical information
F4 Key - Displays all possible entries.
Check Box - Mandatory field
Radio Button - Only one option to be chosen among several.
Pre-assigned values to certain fields are achieved by PARAMETER ID in the user set up.
Path (Navigation) to set up own Data
Easy access Menu system user profile Own Data Few parameters which are set up in SAP HR are
(i) Mol (Molga) – Country Grouping [Eg: 10- US, 40- INDIA ]
(ii) UGR – User Group
Some of the important system settings are given below:
Path: SAP easy Access Extras Settings
-Display ‘Favorites’ at the end of the list
-Display Technical Names
-Do not display menu, only display favorites
-Do not display picture
Setting a start transaction:
You can set your own transaction code as a start transaction code instead of ‘SAP easy Access Menu’ To do this follow the below given navigation path:
SAP Easy Access Extras Set start transaction.
After setting this transaction code, the system takes you to the same transaction code when you log on next time. To change back to ‘SAP Easy Access Menu’ as initial screen, follow same menu path again and delete the transaction code and press ‘Enter’
Important sub module of SAP – HR
-Organizational Management Allows depicting organization and reporting structure.
-Training & Event Management Enable to plan and administer business event, recourses, attendees and fee settlement
-Recruitment Enable to optimize recruiting process.
-Personnel Development Carry out Career & Succession Planning and also Performance Appraisal Models.
-Payroll Calculation of earnings and deductions, Remuneration statement and Bank Transfers.
-Personnel Management Hiring, Maintaining HR Master Data
-Time Management Management & time and leave information.
Structures in SAP
Structures in SAP System
This structure deals about the subdivisions of the organization. And this has following divisions.
A) Client :
-Is an independent legal and organization unit of the system
-You cannot access personnel data from other client
-There is no direct data exchange between clients
-An employee who changes from one client to another must be assigned new personnel number
B) Company Code:
-Is an independent company with the own accounting unit, that is, a company that draws it’s own balance sheet.
-It is the highest level of the company structures
C) Personnel Area
-Defines the different geographical area in which the company has operations.
-4 digit code.
-Is assigned to company code.
(i) Groups employees working in an area of company operations.
(ii) Used for Authorization checks
(iii) Used to generate the default values for data entry. Eg: Default payroll area by feature.
(iv) Used as selection criteria for evaluation i.e., reporting
D) Personnel sub area:
-Are subdivisions of Personnel Areas
-Four character alpha – numeric code
-Controls the important concepts in personnel administration like Pay scale, Wage type structure and work schedules.
Functions / Indicators:
(i) Default values for Pay scale area & Pay scale type.
(ii) Grouping is time Management module & Payroll module.
(iii) Used as selection criteria for reporting
(iv) Used as an entry for authorization checks.
E) Employee Sub Group:
- Fine division of employee groups.
E.g.: Active employees sub divided as trainees, Hourly wage earners and salaried employees.
- Two character alpha – numeric key
(i) Used for grouping in Payroll for Personnel calculation Rule, primary wage types, Pay Scale groupings.
(ii) Used for groupings in Time Management for Work Schedules, Absences, Time Quotas Attendances
(iii) Used for defaulting values.
Human Resources Management
The personnel area is an organizational unit that represents a specific area of the enterprise and is organized according to aspects of personnel, time management and payroll. A Personnel Area is divided into several Personnel Subareas.
Company X has three production plants in Germany: Hamburg, Cologne and Berlin. In the SAP System these would constitute three personnel areas.
Human Resources Management
A personnel subarea is an organizational unit that represents a specific area of the company organized according to certain aspects of personnel, time management and payroll.
The Berlin site of Company X is physically separated by a railroad line. This could mean that two different tax or employment offices are responsible for the respective areas. In this case, you would define a personnel area "Berlin" and two personnel subareas.
Human Resources Management
The employee group allows you to divide your employees into groups and allows you to define their relationship to the enterprise.
You want to distinguish your employees between persons actively employed, pensioners and early retirees.
Human Resources Management
Employee Sub Groups
The employee subgroup represents a subdivision of the employee group. When you define employee subgroups, you are essentially begun to set up your personnel structure.
Within the employee group Active, you want to distinguish between industrial workers, pay scale employees, trainees and executive employees. This distinction enables you to do the following:
-You can carry out evaluations for which certain employee subgroups can be included or excluded.
-Certain personnel administrators should only be allowed to edit the data of certain employee subgroups.
-Depending on the employee subgroup, you can generate different default values in master data processing (for example, executive employees have entitlement to more leave than pay scale employees).
Human Resources Management
Assignment of Personnel Area to Company Code
In this step, you allocate each of your personnel areas to one company code. When you create a personnel number, the corresponding company code is allocated to it in the infotype Organizational allocation (0001), depending on the enterprise structure in which the employee is situated.
The Hamburg, Cologne and Berlin sites of Company X all belong to one company code.
Human Resources Management
Assignment of Employee Sub Group to Employee Group
In this step, you assign your employee subgroups to their respective employee groups. In addition to this, you determine whether the employee group/employee subgroup combinations are allowed for the country groupings.
The employee subgroup for trainees should be assigned to the employee group active and not to the employee group pensioners.
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