Introduction to SAP BASIS
Welcome to SAP BASIS Tutorials. The objective of these tutorials is to provide an in-depth understanding of SAP BASIS. In these tutorials, we will cover topics Database, Operating system, communication protocols, and other SAP modules like FI, HCM, SD, etc.
In addition to free SAP BASIS Tutorials, we will cover common interview questions, issues, and how to’s of SAP BASIS.
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SAP Basis is the technical core of the SAP (Systems, Applications, and Products) software system. It defines the internal structure of the SAP software and consists of the various system and user-level components that help in configuration, installation, troubleshooting, updating, or monitoring the applications. To get a better understanding of SAP features and technical aspects, take our online Introductory Course on SAP Basis.
SAP applications such as FI, CO, PP, etc. can run and communicate with each other across different Operating systems and Databases with the help of BASIS.
The basis is known as Netweaver.
Alias of BASIS is SAP Application Server Technology and the alias of NetWeaver is SAP Web Application Server.
After adding java stack (the applications which are developed in J2EE, BSP, JSP, etc..), an enhanced security standard for the business process. Both ABAP and Java stack can be monitored from one platform. Netweaver supports standard protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, XML, SOAP, SSO, WEBDAV, WSDL, WMLSSO, SSL, X.509, and Unicode format(representation of handling text).
We can say the Basis is the operating system for SAP applications and ABAP. Basis provides services like communication with the operating system, database communication, memory management, runtime collection of application data, web requests, exchanging business data, etc.
Basis supports a number of known operating systems (Unix flavors, Microsoft windows server edition, AS400,z/OS, etc) and databases (Oracle, DB2, Informix, MaxDB, Microsoft SQL Server, etc).
BASIS tool has the following different functionalities:-
- System monitoring and administration tools
- Common monitoring tool CCMS(Computing Centre Management System) to monitor alerts of the R/3 system from one place.
- Use of Business server pages to build online stores and portals.
- Database monitoring and administration utilities
- Resource management like memory, buffer, etc.
- Authorization and profile management tools for user management.
- Internet access control to the system and business objects.
- Transfer modifications in the screen, program, layout from the development to the production system for accuracy purposes by Transport Management System.
- Client-server architecture and configuration.
- Graphical User Interface designing for the presentation layer.
SAP R/3 Architecture
- User related buffer (user-specific)
- R/3 buffer (non-user specific)
User Context: User context is the area where user login attributes, parameters, authorizations, and earlier accessed content are stored. These are valid until the user session. User logout, buffers are lost.
R/3 buffers: Frequently accessed contexts like programs, tables, fields, currencies, calendars, and measurements are stored in R/3 buffers. The data which is frequently accessed and rarely changed is eligible for buffering. These buffers are accessed by all the users. These will remain until the restart of the instance. If the instance is restarted, buffers are lost.
Interpreters: 1. ABAP Interpreter: This is used to interpret the ABAP code embedded in the user request 2. Screen Interpreter: This is used to interpret the screens. 3. SQL Interpreter: This is used to interpret SQL Statements in the ABAP program.
Note: Task handler which is a part of the work process handles the interpreters.
Dispatcher: It receives user request and assigns work process or keep user request in dispatcher queue. Task Handler: It is the agent that processes the user request by segregating into the screen, ABAP, SQL interpreters. User Context: The user context is the buffer area where it stores user login attributes, authorization parameters.
Dispatcher Queue: It is the queue where the user exists when the work processor is busy. It follows FIFO.
It is the layer where the database is hosted. It has its own memory areas, buffer areas, work processes, etc. A central RDBMS realizes the database layer of SAP R/3 systems. Initially, the SAP database will use open SQL but the database client will convert open SQL into native SQL. That is the reason SAP supports different databases.
Features of SAP Basis
SAP Basis supports the SAP modules and applications on all the technical aspects of its smooth functioning. Consisting of low-level services like database communication and high-end tools for system administrators and users, SAP Basis is the platform on which the various solutions run. It has several features such as:
- Database administration – It focuses on the administrative functioning of the various applications by monitoring the database that the SAP system uses.
- System administration – It acts as an interface between the system components and the Basis components, emphasizing on the development platform and data dictionary
- User Administration – It provides the various tools required to help the users manage activities like trouble-shooting, up-gradation, configuration, installation, etc.
- Security Administration – Maintains the security of the SAP systems by integrating the authorization module that protects the system from potential breaches, data corruption, etc.
- Client-Server Architecture – It normally uses the real-time 3-layer architecture consisting of the Presentation layer, Application layer, and Database layer, thereby following the SAP R/3 architecture. These various layers in turn have specific features that allow for the functioning of the SAP applications.
- SAP GUI – SAP Basis defines the graphical user interface (GUI) components of the system. There are three types of interfaces that are widely used – GUI for Windows, GUI for Java, and GUI for HTML. It provides the required platform for the implementation of these user interfaces.
Advantages of SAP BASIS
- SAP is OS Independent (Windows, AIX, Linux (Cent0S, fedora, RHL, SUSE, ORACLE)
- SAP is DB Independent (Oracle, DB2, MSSQL, SAPDB, Informicx, Obsolete).
- Rich set of modules (SD-Sales and Distribution, MM-Material Management, PP-Production Planning, FI- Financial accounting, CO- Controlling, HR, QM- Quality Management, PM- Plant Maintenance).
- Rich set of Industry solutions.
- User-friendly GUI.
- Provides support for all the languages. [Multi coded Page].
- Optimize resources in an Organization enterprise.
- Rich security features to control the data up to field level, Activity level, org level.
- SAP provides 24x7x365 support for the production system.
- Rich set of components (SAP BW, CRM, SRM, SCM).
- Mobile infrastructure is built to support handheld devices.
- built on the robust platform "Netweaver".
- Interface support for printers, scanners, etc.
- High level of stability and performance, response times are consistently under one second.
- Significant cost and time-saving.
- Predefined Business packages, best practices, business scenarios, building blocks, with a predefined implementation road map to reduce TCO (Total cost of ownership) for implementation.
- SAP can be easily adaptable to suit the requirements of the customer.
- SAP provides a user-friendly graphical user interface (Windows, JAVA).
- Provides solution manager to monitor, administer the customer systems, and raise the alerts, and provides early watch alerts through emails and SMS, etc.
- It communicates with non-SAP products ( Oracle, Peoplesoft, Flat Files, excel file), etc. there are various predefined interfaces that are inbuilt in SAP to communicate with external or non SAP Systems.
- Enterprise with it supports multi-tier architecture ( GUI, Web, Mobiles, ...etc.) ..etc.
SAP Provides market place on the web for the following.
- -Download software.
- -Installation guides.
- -Patches related to the program.
- -License keys for installation and upgrades.
- -Developer users and generate access keys.
- -Create and maintain Remote connections so, that SAP can support customer systems remotely.