13th February, 2018
Welcome to C++ Tutorials. The objective of these tutorials is to provide good understanding on C++ Programming Language. In these tutorials, we will cover topics such as Data Types, Constructors, Functions, Aggregation etc. In addition to free C++ tutorials, we will cover common interview questions and issues of C++ Programming Language.
An object oriented programming language Initially named C with classes Developed by Bjourne stroustrip Renamed as c++ in 1983 The idea comes from C statement operator +* IS a superset of C
C++ is an object oriented programming language
A language is a software computer is an electronic device cannot perform operating by own. Language provide set of instructions to perform operations by computer. Language is nothing but programming tool C++ is the name of the language ‘c’ language is derived from ‘B’ language 'B’ language is derived from BCPL ‘C’ language develops in the year 1972 C++ language is develops in the year 1980
Set of instructions or collection of instructions and data. programming elements are 1) Data ii) instruction In order to write a program to required Data and instructions. programming is nothing but process of organize data and instructions according to given problem object oriented means rules and regularity
Programming principle define set of rules and regulations for organization of data and instructions Process Monolithic Programming Process Oriented Programming Modular Oriented Programming Structure Oriented Programming Object Oriented Programming
Using C++ you can develop system software like OS, Device Drivers, Network(N/W) protocols, PC – utilities Application software you can develop application like Data base Word processing Spread sheet C++ is a general purpose programming language better than ‘c’ General purpose means it is suitable for developed any type of software. CUI means character user interface
Organizing the data and instructions are organized in sequential manner called Monolithic programming In this approach instructions organization in sequential order A sequence is set of instructions used to solve a given problem. ( Assembly level language, Basic) Program execution is controlled to use a go to statement Disadvantages Code redundancy : same operation has to be more than one time, same sequence has to copied at number of places. Size of program is increment Efficiency of program is decreased
COBOL and Pascal are called as procedural oriented programming languages. In this approach instructions organized according to their operations by dividing into small programs or small pieces called sub routine. A sub routine is a small program within program This subroutine can be procedure or function Advantages Modularity : Dividing a program into small pieces 0 also called as divide and conqueror According to their operations into small module Reuseability: write code once and use more than once time Readablity : Easy to read or understand Disadvantages Data is global or local It emphasis on instructions but not on data.
In modular programming, a module is a programming in this approach, an application contain one or more that one module Each program is divided into subroutine. A program which contain a main is called executable module which is compiled as .exe A program which has doesn’t have main is called reusable module which is compiled as .LIB(Library)
‘C’ and pascal is called structured programming language
Modular programming User defined data types (Pascal) scoped variables (local & Global) One subroutine communicate with another by passing values Top-down approach Disadvantages Data is global and global data does not have security Un-related operation access global data, if leads and logical errors. debugging application is complex In a large program identifying which operation perform operation on what data becomes complex.
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