17th October, 2020
To give a pointer to the source file called a link.
In Unix/Linux two types of links.
The inode number of the source file, link file are different.
Syn: $ ln-s<source file> <link file>
Ex: $ ln-s/backup/linux /root/desktop/linux
à Source file, link file has same inode numbers.
Syn: $/n<source file><link file>
Ex: $ /n/root/ backup/root/ desktop/ backup
*Shell concept: Shell is a command-line interpreter. The shell access request from the user and the checks command existence, if the command exists then it converts into kernel understandable language (Machine language) and it sends the given request to kernel.
The shell access interface b/w user and kernel
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|Shell name||Developed By||Prompt||Interpreter name|
|Bourne shell||Stephen Bourne||$||sh|
|Korn Shell||David korn||$||ksh|
|C shell||Bill joy||%||csh|
|Bash shell||Stephen Bourne||$||bash|
|Z shell||paul||$||z sh|
Note: The advanced version of the Bourne shell is the bash shell.
Default shell name Flavour name
Bash Shell Linux
Bourne Shell SCo_Unix, Solaris, HP_UX
Korn Shell IBM_AIX
C shell IRIX (Silicon Graphics)
|Default shell name||Flavour name|
|Bourne Shell||SCo_Unix, Solaris, HP_UX|
|C shell||IRIX (Silicon Graphics)|
To check the shells:
#cat / etc/shells
To check the parent shell of the current user:
# echo $ SHELL
To view the available shells:
#Cd /bin #ls * sh
To shift from bash shell to sh shell:
To shift from sh shell to k shell:
To check the current working shell:
To exit the shell:
Linux automatic command completion is a tool or program that can identify what you are typing in the Linux command line terminal and can complete that command, words, or sentence for you. This is really cool feature in Linux
Ex: $cd /var/l<tab>Lib/lock/ log/
The history command performs one of several operations related to recently – executed commands recorded in a history list. Each of these recorded commands is referred to as an ‘event’, when specifying an event to the history command.
$history –c Lock the history.
$history –r Unlock history.
$rm.bash_history Removes the history
Syn: Alias name=’command’
$alias U= user add
$alias C= Clear
$alias Display alias list
$unalias U Disable alias
$Vim. bashrc Permanent alias names
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