Using a Text Editor

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Text Editors in Unix

Being able to use a text editor is probably one of the most critical skills to have as a system administrator. You constantly need to edit con fig files, write scripts or make changes to system files …….. all of which require you to use a text editor.

  • The three most popular editors available today include

Vi(or) Vim:      Text editor with great flexibility. Emacs  :           similar to vi, an advanced text editor with many features. Nano   :           A basic text editor for quick editing

  • Vi (or) Vim Editor:
  • Using this editor to create new files, open the files and modifying the data into a existing files.
  • The Vi Editor is most popular
  • It has three modes:
    • Command mode
    • Insert mode
    • Execution (or) colon mode
  • By default mode is command mode

Syn:  Vim [arguments]   [file] Arguments:                 -           R    -----> opens a file in read –only mode -           o    -----> Open two files at a time +      -----> Starts at the end of the file +          <rum>    -----> Start at line <num>   1   Insert mode options: i --------> To begin insert mode at the current cursor position. I -------->To Insert at the beginning of the current line a-------->To append to the next word’s letter. A --------> To append at the end of the line o  -------->To insert a new line below the cursor position. O  -------->  To Insert a new line above the cursor position.   Commands for command mode: e  --------> Moves to the end of a word b  --------> Moves to the beginning of a word. $  -------->Moves to the end of a line. ˄   -------->Moves to the beginning of a line H -------->Moves to the first line onscreen M --------> Moves to the middle line onscreen L  -------->Moves to the last line onscreen x (nx) -------->Deletes current character. dd (ndd)-------->Deletes the current line dw (ndw)-------->Deletes current word. Yy(nyy)  --------> yanks (copies) the current line p -------->paste below the cursor line P  -------->paste above the cursor line U-------->undo the last action. gg(ngg)-------->go to beginning of the file G -------->End of the file. W (n)-------->To move the cursor forward, word by word. b(n) --------> To move the cursor back word, word by word Ctrl +f -------->To forward one page. Ctrl +b -------->To back word one page. /  -------->To search a word in the file. n -------->Find next occurrence of search word. N --------> find previous occurrence of search word. .  --------> Repeat last command action. Commands for last line mode: :q  -------->To quit without saving :w   -------->To save the changes   :wq    -------->To save & quit   :wq!  (or)   :x  -------->  To save & quit with forcefully.   :set nu  (or)    :se nu -------> To setting line numbers.     :set nonu   (or)   :se nonu------> To remove line numbers.   :n  ------>Jumps to line n :$d ------>To delete last line :! <unixcmd> ------> To execute unix cmds :x  ------>To give password to the file and remove password. :/storing / ------>search a word in the file.

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  • To find & Replace:

: % S/root/dog/             To replace storing “dog” for the first instance : %s/root/dog/g              For each instance of a line. : %s/root/dog/gi             To ignore case sensitive : %s/root/dog/gc             ask for confirmation    

  • Executing unix commands in vi:

Any unix command can be Executed from the vi command line by typing an “!” before the unix command. EX: : ! Pwd : r ! data           Reads the results from the date command into a new line following the cursor : r ! cat file1

  • I want to copy 1,4 lines to paste after 10th line:

:  1,4 CO 10

  • I want to move 3,7 lines after 8th line:

: 3,7 mo 8

  • I want to copy 1,30 lines create a new file:

: 1,30 w test1

  • I want to append the data into a existing file:

:  8,20 w >> test1

  • I want to insert end of the line (or) we require line

: r/etc/passwd   Managing two files at time: $vim    -0 file1 file2 (or) $vim file1 file2 Options: :n    ----> edit next file (file2) :rew   ----> Rewind to the file (file1) (or)

  • To move one file to another file (ctrl + W)

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