UNIX Commands

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Ten ESSENTIAL UNIX Commands These are ten commands that you really need to know in order to get started with UNIX. They are probably similar to commands you already know for another operating system.

Command Example Description
  1.    ls
ls ls –alF Lists files in current directory List in long format
  1.    cd
cd tempdir cd .. cd ~dhyatt/web-docs Change directory to tempdir Move back one directory Move into dhyatt's web-docs directory
  1.    mkdir
mkdir graphics Make a directory called graphics
  1.    rmdir
rmdir emptydir Remove directory (must be empty)
  1.    cp
cp file1 web-docs cp file1 file1.bak Copy file into directory Make backup of file1
  1.    rm
rm file1.bak rm *.tmp Remove or delete file Remove all file
  1.    mv
mv old.html new.html Move or rename files
  1.    more
more index.html Look at file, one page at a time
  1.    lpr
lpr index.html Send file to printer
  1.  man
man ls Online manual (help) about command

  Ten VALUABLE UNIX Commands Once you have mastered the basic UNIX commands, these will be quite valuable in managing your own account.

Command Example Description
  1.    grep <str><files>
grep "bad word" * Find which files contain a certain word
  1.    chmod <opt> <file>
chmod 644 *.html chmod 755 file.exe Change file permissions read only Change file permissions to executable
  1.    passwd
passwd Change passwd
  1.    ps <opt>
ps aux ps -ef   |   grep java List all running processes by #ID List process #ID's running by java
  1.    kill <opt> <ID>
kill -9 8453 Kill process with ID #8453
  1.    gcc (g++) <source>
gcc file.c -o file g++ fil2.cpp -o fil2 Compile a program written in C Compile a program written in C++
  1.    gzip <file>
gzip bigfile gunzip bigfile.gz Compress file Uncompress file
  1.    mail (pine)
mail me@tjhsst.edu < file1 pine Send file1 by email to someone Read mail using pine
  1.    telnet <host> ssh <host>
telnet vortex.tjhsst.edu ssh -l dhyatt jazz.tjhsst.edu Open a connection to vortex Open a secure connection to jazz as user dhyatt
  1.  ftp <host> ncftp <host/directory>
ftp station1.tjhsst.edu ncftp metalab.unc.edu Upload or Download files to station1 Connect to archives at UNC

  Ten FUN UNIX Commands These are ten commands that you might find interesting or amusing. They are actually quite helpful at times, and should not be considered idle entertainment.

Command Example Description
  1.    who
who Lists who is logged on your machine
  1.    finger
finger Lists who is on computers in the lab
  1.    ytalk <user@place>
ytalk dhyatt@threat Talk online with dhyatt who is on threat
  1.    history
history Lists commands you've done recently
  1.    fortune
fortune Print random humerous message
  1.    date
date Print out current date
  1.    cal <mo> <yr>
cal 9 2000 Print calendar for September 2000
  1.    xeyes
xeyes & Keep track of cursor (in "background")
  1.    xcalc
xcalc & Calculator ("background" process)
  1.  mpage <opt> <file>
mpage -8 file1   |  lpr Print 8 pages on a single sheet and send to printer (the font will be small!)

  Ten HELPFUL UNIX Commands These ten commands are very helpful, especially with graphics and word processing type applications.

Command Example Description
  1.    netscape
netscape & Run Netscape browser
  1.    xv
xv & Run graphics file converter
  1.    xfig / xpaint
xfig & (xpaint &) Run drawing program
  1.    gimp
gimp & Run photoshop type program
  1.    ispell <fname>
ispell file1 Spell check file1
  1.    latex <fname>
latex file.tex Run LaTeX, a scientific document tool
  1.    xemacs / pico
xemacs (or pico) Different editors
  1.    soffice
soffice & Run StarOffice, a full word processor
  1.    m-tools (mdir, mcopy, mdel, mformat, etc. )
mdir a: mcopy file1   a: DOS commands from UNIX (dir A:) Copy file1 to A:
  1.  gnuplot
gnuplot Plot data graphically

  Ten USEFUL UNIX Commands: These ten commands are useful for monitoring system access, or simplifying your own environment.

Command Example Description
  1.    df
df See how much free disk space
  1.    du
du -b subdir Estimate disk usage of directory in Bytes
  1.    alias
alias lls="ls -alF" Create new command "lls" for long format of ls
  1.    xhost
xhost + threat.tjhsst.edu xhost - Permit window to display from x-window program from threat Allow no x-window access from other systems
  1.    fold
fold -s file1   |   lpr Fold or break long lines at 60 characters and send to printer
  1.    tar
tar -cf subdir.tar subdir tar -xvf subdir.tar Create an archive called subdir.tar of a directory Extract files from an archive file
  1.    ghostview (gv)
gv filename.ps View a Postscript file
  1.    ping (traceroute)
ping threat.tjhsst.edu traceroute www.yahoo.com See if machine is alive Print data path to a machine
  1.    top
top Print system usage and top resource hogs
  1.  logout (exit)
logout or exit How to quit a UNIX shell.

  To check your disk utilization on Solaris or Linux, use the iostat -D <interval> command, where the interval value determines how many seconds you want to elapse between monitoring cycles. To check your CPU utilization, simply leave off the -D flag (iostat <interval>). For Windows, use the Performance Monitor tool (perfmon), to monitor both your disk and CPU utilization.   TCP (transmission control protocol) socket performance, set the tcp_time_wait_interval parameter as follows: ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_time_wait_interval 60000   Check the amount of data transferred between the application and the application server, and between the application server and the database server. netstat -s -P tcp   Use Kill -3 PID, where PID is the root of the process tree. To obtain the root PID, perform a: ps -efHl | grep 'java' **. **   Check out our Related Courses Weblogic Tutorials Introduction to Clustering Weblogic WebLogic Server Admin Training in Houston Oracle Weblogic Server Installation

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