Q1. What is SAP NetWeaver?

Ans. SAP NetWeaver is SAP's integrated technology computing platform and is the technical foundation for many SAP applications since the SAP Business Suite. SAP NetWeaver is marketed as a service-oriented application and integration platform. SAP NetWeaver provides the development and runtime environment for SAP applications and can be used for custom development and integration with other applications and systems.

Q2. What is the transactional processing in AS ABAP? Explain?

Ans. Transactions are processing units grouped to provide specific units. They have four principal characteristics. The initial letters of these characteristics together form the acronym ACID.

  • Atomic
  • Consistent
  • Isolated
  • Durable

Atomic means that a transaction is either fully successful or does not have any effects at all. If a transaction-oriented system goes down, you need to ensure that inconsistent, partial results are not stored.

Consistent means that the system status changes from one that is accurate and consistent in business terms to another that is also accurate and consistent in business terms.

Isolated means that the changes made within a transaction can only be seen by other transactions, even those that run simultaneously, after the final confirmation.

The results of a transaction are durable because after the final confirmation they are stored permanently in the database.

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Q3. How to trigger the idoc? 

Ans. We can trigger the idoc by using T Code - WE19

Q4. What is SAP?

Ans. SAP stands for System Analysis and Program Development.

SAP's Business Suite has four applications as below:

  1. Customer relationship management (CRM) - helps companies acquire and retain customers, gain marketing and customer insight.
  2. Product lifecycle management (PLM) - helps manufacturers with product-related information.
  3. Supply chain management (SCM) - helps companies with the process of resourcing its manufacturing and service processes.
  4. Supplier relationship management (SRM) - enables companies to procure from suppliers.
  5. Enterprise resource planning (ERP).

Q5. What is lock management in the SAP system?

Ans. Lock management is used in SAP system to ensure data consistency and to check that data records cannot be changed by any particular user at any particular time. A database transaction is a combination of the physical and logical unit. The database lock administration can only coordinate this type of database transaction. From an SAP point of view, this is not sufficient, because SAP transactions, which are formed from a sequence of logically related work steps that are consistent in business terms, are generally made up of several dialog steps. SAP systems need to have their own lock management. Enqueue's work process is used for this purpose. This also ensures that the platform-independence of lock management is maintained.

Q6. What do you mean by PBO (process before output) and PAI (process after input)?

Ans. For an SAP transaction, the graphical representation of the screen and related processing logic is called a Dynpro (dynamic program). Each Dynpro consists of a PBO/PAI module to prepare and process the data displayed or entered on the screen.

  • -PBO (Process Before Output): A processing event which is called before the screen is displayed. Its tasks include the initialization of the screen fields and supply default data values for the screen.
  • -PAI (Process After Input): A processing event taking place after you leave a screen. Its tasks are to process the input data or initiate the update of the database.

Q7. Where do we find the idoc in xi?

Ans. Integration repository --> Imported objects ---> Idoc.

Q8. How many processes exist in the Java application server? Explain.

Ans. The following processes exist in Java AS :

  • The dispatcher distributes incoming requests to the server processes.
  • The server process executes the Java applications. Every server process is multithreaded and can thus process a large number of requests in parallel.
  • The Java message service manages a list of Java dispatchers and server processes. It is responsible for the communication within the Java runtime environment.
  • The Java enqueue service manages logical locks that are set by the executed Java application program in a server process.
  • The Software Deployment Manager(SDM) is the standard tool used to install Java software components on the SAP Web AS Java.

Q9. How many types of processes are there in the SAP Netweaver application server? Explain

Ans. The types of processes in SAP AS are :

  • The dispatcher distributes the request to the work processes.
  • Dialog work processes fulfill all requests for the execution of dialog steps triggered by an active user. Every dispatcher requires at least two dialog work processes.
  • Spool work processes pass sequential data flow on to printers. At least one spool work process is required for each SAP system. It is possible to configure more than one spool work process for each dispatcher.
  • Update work processes to execute update requests. Similarly to spool work processes, you need at least one update work process per SAP system.
  • Background work processes execute programs that run without interacting with the user. You need at least two background work processes for each SAP system.
  • The enqueue work process administers the lock table in the shared memory. The lock table contains the logical database locks of the ABAP runtime environment of the SAP system. Only one enqueue work process is needed for each system.

Q10. What is an instance? How many types of instances are there? Explain them.

Ans. An instance is an administrative unit that combines SAP system components proving one or more services. The services provided by an instance are started or stopped together. You use a common instance profile to set parameters of all the components of an instance. Each instance has its own buffer area. An instance runs on one physical computer, but there can be multiple instances on one computer. An instance is identified by the system ID(SID) and the instance number. There are two types of instances :

The central instance of the SAP system is distinguished by the fact that it offers services that no other instance of the system offers. For the AS ABAP, these are the message server and the enqueue work process. For the AS Java, you can recognize the central instance by the software deployment manager (SDM).

Q11. Explain the processes used for operating business applications?

Ans. The following processes are used for operating business application software :

  • Presentation processes (for example, for displaying screens)
  • Application processes (for example, for executing application programs)
  • Database processes(for example, for managing and organizing database data)

When you are installing and configuring an SAP system, you need to decide how you are going to distribute the required processes among the available hardware. There are various ways of doing this :

  • Single-tier configurations, all processing tasks(database, application, and presentation processes) are performed by one computer. This is classic mainframe processing.
  • Two-tier configurations are usually implemented using special presentation servers that are responsible solely for formatting the graphical interface.
  • Three-tier configuration, each layer runs on its own host. Many different application servers can simultaneously work with the data of a database server.

Q12. Define client and server in terms of both hardware-oriented

Ans. In a hardware-oriented view, the term server means the central server in a network that provides data, memory, and resources for the workstations(clients).

In the software-oriented view, the client and server are both defined as the process level(service). Service in this context is a service provided by a software component. This software component can consist of a process or a group of processes and is then called a server for that service. Software components that use a service are called clients. At the same time, clients can also be servers for other specific services.

Q13. What are the commands /nen and /nex in Netweaver used for?

Ans. /nex in the t-code entry field of the SAP toolbar. This terminates all separate sessions and logs off immediately (without warning!).

Q14. How many help options are there in SAP Netweaver? Explain.

Ans. SAP system provides you with various help options :

F1 Help: It is used to display an explanation of fields, menus, functions, and messages. The F1 help also displays technical information on the relevant field.

F4 Help: It is used to display possible input values. You can also call up the F4 help for a field using the button immediately to the right of the selected field.

SAP Library (Online Documentation): The SAP library is a useful aid to getting to know system functions. It allows you to access the online documentation. The information stored here does not simply describe how to use system functions, it also explains system architecture concepts, gives examples of how you can configure various processes and warns you about possible user errors and their consequences.

Q15. How many types of locks can an application developer choose? Explain.

Ans. The application developer can choose between different lock modes :

Write locks (lock mode Exclusive): the lock data can be edited only by one user. The requests for another write lock and another read lock are rejected. A write lock protects the locked objects against all types of other transactions. Only the same lock owner can set the lock again.

Read locks(lock mode Shared): several users can have access to the locked data at the same time. The requests for additional read locks are accepted, even if they are from other users. A write lock is rejected.

Enhanced write locks(lock mode exclusive noncumulative): while write locks can be successively requested and released by the same transaction, and enhanced write lock can only be requested once, even by the same transaction. All other requests for locks are rejected.

Optimistic locks(lock mode Optimistic): optimistic locks respond like reading lock at first and can be changed to write locks. An optimistic lock is set if the user displays the data in changed mode.

Q16. What is an update in terms of the SAP system? Explain.

Ans. In the SAP system, a business process is mapped using an SAP transaction that can contain several screen changes. Data changes effected by this process are supposed to be executed completely or not at all in the database. The update system offers increased security, performance, and restorability in the execution of database changes. The updating system is a technology that allows SAP transactions to off-load time-intensive database changes.

To increase performance further, application developers can configure different types of updates :

  • Time-critical, primary V1 updates. They are relevant to objects that have a controlling function in the system, such as a change to the material stock or an order creation.
  • Non-time critical, secondary V2 updates that depend on the V1 updates. These are purely statistical updates such as the calculation of results.
  • Non-time critical updates that are allowed and processes at a later point of time (collective run).

Q17. With the SAP user interface how many screen elements can be used? 

Ans. An SAP user interface contains the following screen elements :

  • Command field
  • Menu bar, system function bar, title bar, application toolbar, status bar
  • Checkboxes
  • Radio buttons

Tab You can start applications directly by entering their transaction code in the command field. The menu bar is the top line of any dialog window in the SAP system. The pushbuttons in the standard toolbar are shown on every SAP screen. If they are not available in an application, pushbuttons that you cannot use on that screen are deactivated. If you place the cursor over a pushbutton for a short time, the system displays a flag with the name or function of the pushbutton. The title bar is the function that you are currently in. The application toolbar shows the pushbuttons available in the application that you are currently in. The status bar displays information on the current system status, such as warnings and errors. Within a field group, checkboxes allow selecting several options at the same time. With radio buttons, you can only select one option. A tab organizes several sub-screens to improve clarity.

Q18. In how many ways SAP Netweaver AS can be installed? Explain.

Ans. There are 3 different installation options for SAP Netweaver AS. These are :

  • SAP Netweaver AS ABAP: Complete infrastructure in which ABAP-based applications can be developed and used.
  • SAP Netweaver AS Java: Complete infrastructure in which J2EE-conform applications can be developed and used.
  • SAP Netweaver AS ABAP + Java: Complete infrastructure in which ABAP-based and J2EE-based applications can be developed and used. This installation emphasizes the seamless Java ABAP integration.

Q19. What does the SAP Netweaver Application server offer?

Ans. 

  • SAP Netweaver AS is the logical result of the further development of the SAP Application server Technology. SAP Netweaver AS offers :
  • A reliable and extensively tested runtime environment, which has been developed further continuously over more than ten years.
  • A framework for executing complex business processes that meet the highest security standards.
  • A reliable and user-friendly development environment.
  • Support for open standards, including HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, WebDAV, SOAP, SSL, Unicode, HTML,XML and WML.
  • High scalability.
  • Support for different operating systems and database platforms.

Q20. What is the use of metadata? Can we create that?

Ans. Metadata or message Metadata provides the structure definition of the XI message.  can be created in IR . which is called Message Type.

The inbound proxy is the server proxy and the outbound proxy is the client proxy.  In client-server architecture let me explain, that someone is sending a request for data then that someone will be server and that is through a proxy, and the client will fulfill this requirement and send the response back through a proxy that is an outbound proxy.

Q21. What is message monitoring, component monitoring, and performance monitoring?

Ans.  Message monitoring is to monitor the status of the message that if it is successful or in waiting for the state, or to be delivered or if it is in error at what point it is in error and to review all the steps of the message in Adapter engine or integration engine with the payload.

Component monitoring means majorly monitoring the status of communication channels that they are flowing data properly or not, the status of the adapter engine, etc.

Performance Monitoring is to monitor the instance of servers for each and every interface.

Q22. What is an inbound proxy and outbound proxy?

Ans. The inbound proxy is the server proxy and the outbound proxy is the client proxy.  In client-server architecture let me explain, that someone is sending a request for data then that someone will be server and that is through a proxy, and the client will fulfill this requirement and send the response back through a proxy that is an outbound proxy.

Q23. How to trigger the idoc?

Ans. We can trigger the idoc by using T Code - WE19

Q24. What is message monitoring, component monitoring, and performance monitoring.?

Ans. Message monitoring is to monitor the status of the message that if it is successful or in waiting for the state, or to be delivered or if it is in error at what point it is in error and to review all the steps of the message in the Adapter engine or integration engine with the payload.

Component monitoring means majorly monitoring the status of communication channels that they are flowing data properly or not, the status of the adapter engine, etc.

Performance Monitoring is to monitor the instance of servers for each and every interface.

Q25. What is the difference b/w Graphical mapping and XSLT mapping?

Ans. XSLT MAPPING Converts from XML to text, HTML, DHTML.and the main difference is the XSLT Mapping itself generates the target structure.there is no other tool or mapping in convert in XML to text and HTML.

Q26. Who will prepare the functional spec?

Ans. Functional Spec derives from Software requirements. Software requirement derives from Marketing requirements. MRS will be prepared by Business Analysts with help of End Users. So, Functional Spec is a small piece of the requirement to fill the business requirements. Finally, the Functionality will be validated/Verified against MRS tested by the End-User during user acceptance testing.

Q27. What is the difference b/w Graphical mapping and XSLT mapping?

Ans. XSLT MAPPING Converts from XML to text, HTML, DHTML.and the main difference is the XSLT Mapping itself generates the target structure.there is no other tool or mapping in convert in XML to text and Html.