How to Use GIT
The workflow decision is typically based on the size and scale of your project. To gain a basic understanding of git for now, a simple, single-branch workflow will suffice. By default, the first branch on any git project is called "master". In a following tutorial in this series, you will learn how to create other branches.
Creating your workspace
Just like you want to have a good, clean work environment, the same idea applies to where you do your coding, especially if you're going to contribute to a number of projects at the same time. A good suggestion might be to have a folder called git in your home directory which has sub-folders for each of your individual projects.
user@host ~ $ mkdir -p ~/git/testing ; cd ~/git/testing
The above commands will accomplish two things:
-It creates a directory called "git" in our home directory and then creates a subdirectory inside of that called "testing" (this is where our project will actually be stored).
- It brings us to our project's base directory.
We need to create a few files that will be in our project.
In this step, you can either follow along and create a few dummy files for testing purposes or you can create files you wish that are going to be part of your project.
Create a test file to use in repository
user@host ~/git/testing $ touch file
All your project files are in your workspace, you need to start tracking your files with git.
The next step explains that process.
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Converting an existing project into a workspace environment
The files are in git workspace, need to tell git that you want to use your current directory as a git environment.
user@host ~/git/testing $ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/user/git/testing/.git/
After Initializing new empty repository, you can add your files.
Add all files and directories to newly created repository:
user@host ~/git/testing $ git add
In this case, no output is good output. Unfortunately, git does not always inform you if something worked.
Every time you add or make changes to files, you need to write a commit message.
The next section describes what a commit message is and how to write one.
Creating a commit message
user@host ~/git/testing $ git commit -m "Initial Commit" -a [master (root-commit) 1b830f8] initial commit 0 files changed create mode 100644 file
There are two important parameters of the above command. The first is -m, which signifies that our commit message (in this case "Initial Commit") is going to follow. Secondly, the -a signifies that we want our commit message to be applied to all added or modified files. This is okay for the first commit, but generally you should specify the individual files or directories that we want to commit.
user@host ~/git/testing $ git commit -m "Initial Commit" file
To specify a particular file to commit. To add additional files or directories, you just add a space separated list to the end of that command.
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Pushing changes to a remote server
Your changes are now in the HEAD of your local working copy. To send those changes to your remote repository, Change master to whatever branch you want to push your changes to execute.
user@host ~/git/testing $ git remote add origin ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/repository.git
user@host ~/git/testing $ git remote -v
origin ssh://email@example.com/repository.git (fetch)
origin ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/repository.git (push)
The first command adds a remote, called "origin", and sets the URL to ssh://email@example.com/repository.git. If you have not cloned an existing repository and want to connect your repository to a remote server, you need to add it with.
You can push code to a remote server by typing the following:
user@host ~/git/testing $ git push origin master
Counting objects: 4, done.
Delta compression using up to 2 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 266 bytes, done.
Total 3 (delta 1), reused 1 (delta 0)
0e78fdf..e6a8ddc master -> master
Now, you are able to push your changes to the selected remote server
"git push" tells git that we want to push our changes, "origin" is the name of our newly-configured remote server and "master" is the name of the first branch.
In the future, when you have commits that you want to push to the server, you can simply type "git push".
Branches are used to develop features isolated from each other. The master branch is the "default" branch when you create a repository. Use other branches for development and merge them back to the master branch upon completion.
create a new branch named "feature_x" and switch to it using switch back to master and delete the branch againa branch is not available to others unless you push the branch to your remote repository
git checkout -b feature_x
git checkout master
git branch -d feature_x
git push origin <branch>
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