What is SAP?
SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
SAP Testing is about testing the functionality of various SAP modules to ensure that they are performing as per the configuration. SAP system undergoes various changes like patch management and fixes, new module implementations and various other configuration changes. All these raise a need for Regression testing to be performed in SAP environments. SAP testing automation tools like SAP TAO can be used for this purpose and is recommended by SAP for testing.
What is ERP?
ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
Different types of ERP?
SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERPÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages over other ERP packages.
The benefits of performing SAP Testing are manifold. They are as follows
-System Validation − SAP Testing involves complete end to end testing and validation of all SAP modules in SAP ERP environment.
-Quality and Revenue − SAP Testing is an output based testing and not like conventional testing methods which are input based and it ensures the quality of SAP system and also focuses on revenue and cost of the organization.
-Cost and Predictability − SAP Testing involves reducing the SAP development costs and improve predictability.
-Compliance Requirement − SAP Testing ensures that SAP implementation is meeting the new compliance requirements in a specific organization and all modules are working as per expected configuration.
-New Implementation and Configuration Changes − There are different type of changes implemented in SAP system, like patches and fixes, new implementation, configurational changes. SAP testing ensures that all the modules are performing as per requirement in this dynamic system environment.
-Integration − SAP testing is performed to test various reports, data flows and work flows, GUI forms, etc. It is used to check system integration between different modules. For example, if an order posting is done that requires an action in Sales and Distribution, MM and FICO so SAP testing check the integration between these systems.
Performance − It is also used to ensure if system will be able to meet the Service Level agreements, time taken by system to perform specific actions, performance of the system, etc.
Explain the concept of "Business Content" in SAP Business Information Warehouse?
Business Content is a preconfigured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.
Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?
There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It's highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
SAP testing can be performed on the following modules −
-SAP Material Management
-SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling
-SAP Sales and Distribution
-SAP Human Resource
-SAP Supply Chain Management
-SAP Plant Management
Some of the automating testing tools are − HP Quick Test Professional (QTP), Selenium, SAP TAO, ECATT, IBM Rational Functional Tester, WinRunner, and LoadRunner.
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material and demo video tutorials. To gain in-depth knowledge and be on par with practical
experience, then explore SAP Testing Training Videos.
The different stages that come under Software Testing Life Cycle are − Requirements phase, Test Planning, Test Analysis, Test Design Phase, Test Implementation, Test Execution Phase, and Test Closure Phase.
Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?
Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use predefined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Informatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
What is IDES?
International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
What is WF and its importance?
Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
What is SAP R/3?
A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called "sap data transfer". Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).
Explain open SQL vs native SQL?
ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
What are datasets?
The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?
Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3?
Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? - Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?
In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the
people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?
OLAP - On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine "builds" and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called "reporting.
Unit testing is used to test the functionality of various components in a SAP system. It is performed by domain and configuration experts who know the functionality of each unit in a system.
Example − To create a sales order and to save it. To perform Unit testing for this task, tester should know that the sales order can be saved using the SAP organization elements like customer master data, partner functions, material master data, company code, credit control area, sales organization, etc.
Scenario-based testing, as the name suggests, is performed as per specific business cases.
Example − Suppose there are a few tasks that are specific to a customer segment or a given product line or a set of services. For these specific line of target, you have different scenarios you need to test.
This testing is also performed in the development environment, an argument can be made to say this is a test case you would cover in system testing.
What is Ã¢â‚¬Å"Extended Star SchemaÃ¢â‚¬Â and how did it emerge?
The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data
Metadata: Data that describes the structure of data or Meta Objects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
Name some drawbacks of SAP
Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
What is Bex?
Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.
What are variables?
Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacement Path.
What is AWB?. What is its purpose?
AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.
What is the significance of ODS in BIW?
An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
What are the different types of source system?
SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.
What is Extractor?
Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.
Interface testing ensures that a business process on a SAP system runs automatically. Ideally interface testing involves larger testing activities as a project progresses. Interface testing shows that triggering works, the data selection is accurate and complete, data transfer is successful, and the receiver is able to consume the sent data.
SAP UAT is used to ensure that end-users are able to perform assigned job functions with the new system. The important aspect of this testing is to understand the business requirement and to ensure that the expected features, functions, and capabilities are available.
Learn more about SAP Testing Tutorials in this blog post.
Performance testing identifies bottlenecks and coding inefficiencies in a SAP system. It is carried out to check −
-Whether the system response time is acceptable as per the business requirement
-Whether periodic processes are running within permissible time
-Whether the expected concurrent user load can be supported
Security and Authorizations Testing is used to ensure that the users are only able to execute transactions and access appropriate data that is relevant to their project.
As with the implementation of Security standards, this is really important to test if security and authorization is placed in a system. Test IDs for job roles are created and used to both confirm what a user can do and what a user cannot do.
This testing is usually performed once in a project lifecycle. The term “cutover” means a full scale execution of the all tasks involved to extract data from legacy systems and then to perform any kind of data conversion, load the results into the SAP system and fully validate the results, including a user sign-off.
SAP Regression Testing is used to find new functionalities and to test the old functionalities in a system when it is upgraded or a new system is set up. The key role of regression testing is to test the existing functionality and newly updated configuration and code base.
When you upgrade your SAP system or apply a patch, it shouldn’t affect the functionality that is expected to be performed by users and to check new features that are supposed to be introduced in new release.
SAP testing navigation ensures that you cover each module of your SAP system and at least one test to be performed for each functionality.
It also reduces the manual testing effort and covers most of the testing paths in a SAP system. OPA tests can be performed to check SAP Testing - Navigation.
Screen flow logic in SAP Testing is like an ABAP code and it is used to contain the processing blocks. It contains procedural part of screen and is created in screen painter and this screen painter is similar to an ABAP editor.
Financial Modules − Finance Accounting and Controlling (FICO), Treasure (TR), and Enterprise Control (EC).
Logistics Modules − Material Management (MM), Plant Maintenance (PM), Sales and Distribution (SD), Quality Management (QM), etc.
Human Resource Management − Accounting Payroll, Time Management, Training and Event Management.
SAP Test-cases are required to perform a check on the installation and configuration of SAP system, any new implementation, Multilanguage and device testing, intranet testing, real-time testing, etc.
Since an ERP system is a common centralized system and is used by multiple users simultaneously in real time, it creates a need to write the test cases with lot of effort and dedication.
ERP systems also involve various FI transactions, so each test case should cover the scope of all the configuration and implementation part. Test data should be passed carefully and each test should have a column with name output data.
SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization TAO 2.0 is a tool that is used to create automatic test-cases during Regression testing of a system. It helps SAP customers to create different test components from the screens of a transaction and parameterizes them.
These test components are created normally for one transaction code and later can be combined to test scenarios. It can be easily integrated to the Business Process Change Analyzer in SAP Solution Manager.
Process Flow Analyzer is used to automatically find out the user interfaces used in transaction codes executed in a SAP system. It automatically creates the test components and upload them to Quality Center. It is also used to identify the sequence of test components as per user actions and creation of spreadsheet values.
Consolidate is known as a process to combine SAP TAO components with inbuilt components to create test scenarios as single transactional business components. It allows you to collect multiple test components into one test.
Go to SAP TAO and login and select SAP SOLMAN in the list. This list of system is SAP TAO is fetched from configuration file of SAP logon. So to add a system in SAP TAO, you need to add a new system in SAP Logon and refresh the list in TAO.
Enter the login credentials and click on logon.
SAP TAO will be connected to SAP Solution Manager and the TAO configuration wizard will open up.