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Kubernetes is an open-source technology for deploying, scaling and maintaining containerized applications automatically. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation now maintains it after Google initially built it Kubernetes is designed to be highly scalable, allowing you to easily deploy and manage containerized applications in a cluster of machines. Thousands of users and developers support it in both production and development environments. In this list of Kubernetes interview questions and answers, we will cover a range of topics related to the use and administration of Kubernetes, including deployment, scaling, networking, security, and more.
We have divided the questions into 3 parts:
Most frequently asked Kubernetes Interview Questions
Ans: An open-source technology called Kubernetes is used to automatically deploy, scale, and maintain containerized applications. It allows users to define and deploy containerized applications in a declarative way, and it provides a set of tools and APIs for managing and monitoring those applications.
Ans: Kubernetes works by running a cluster of nodes, which can be physical or virtual machines. To deploy and manage containerized applications, these nodes run the necessary components and processes. Users can define their desired state for their applications using Kubernetes objects, such as pods, deployments, and services. Kubernetes ensures that the actual state of the cluster matches the desired state by continuously monitoring and making changes as needed.
Ans: A Kubernetes cluster's essential elements include:
1) Master node: This node runs the control plane components, such as the API server, scheduler, and controller manager, which are responsible for the overall management of the cluster.
2) Worker nodes: These nodes run the applications and processes defined by the user. Their management is overseen by the master node.
3) Etcd: Cluster configuration data is stored in this distributed key-value store.
4) Kubernetes API: This is the primary interface for interacting with the cluster, and it allows users to create, update, and delete objects in the cluster.
Ans: Containerized applications are managed and deployed using Kubernetes APIs and Devops tools. It allows users to define the desired state of their applications, such as the number of replicas and resource limits, and it automatically manages the actual state of the cluster to match the desired state. This includes scheduling containers on the appropriate nodes, scaling up or down based on resource usage, and rolling out updates or rollbacks as needed.
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Ans: Pods are the smallest deployable Kubernetes units. It is a logical host for one or more containers, and it represents the basic execution unit for applications in a Kubernetes cluster. Pods are transient objects that can be generated and removed as required.
Ans: A Kubernetes cluster's worker machines are known as nodes. It can be a physical or virtual machine, and it runs the necessary components and processes to manage and deploy containerized applications.
Ans: A deployment is a high-level object that represents a group of replicas of a specific application. It allows users to declaratively define their desired state for the application, such as the number of replicas and the container image to use, and it automatically manages the actual state of the replicas to match the desired state. Deployments also provide rolling update and rollback functionality.
Ans: A replica set is a lower-level object in Kubernetes that is responsible for maintaining a specific number of replicas of a pod. It ensures that the specified number of replicas are always running, and it can replace failed or deleted pods as needed.
Ans: A service is an abstract way to expose an application running in a Kubernetes cluster to other parts of the cluster or to the outside world.
Ans: Etcd is a distributed key-value store that is used to store the configuration data for a Kubernetes cluster. It is used to store information about the state of the cluster, such as the current set of pods and services, as well as any changes to the cluster. Etcd is a critical component of a Kubernetes cluster as it provides the persistent storage needed to maintain the state of the cluster.
Ans: A label in Kubernetes is a key-value pair that is attached to an object (such as a pod or a deployment) and is used to organize and identify objects. Labels can be used to group objects together and to specify criteria for selecting a group of objects. For example, you could use labels to specify the environment (e.g., production, staging) or the version of an application that a group of pods is running.
Ans: A namespace in Kubernetes is a virtual environment that is used to group resources together. Each namespace has its own set of objects (e.g., pods, services, etc.), and resources within a namespace are isolated from resources in other namespaces. Namespaces are useful for separating resources that belong to different environments (e.g., production, staging) or teams.
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Ans: An ingress in Kubernetes is a collection of rules that allow inbound connections to reach the cluster. It is used to expose the services in a cluster to external clients, such as users accessing a web application. An ingress can be configured to provide load balancing, SSL termination, and name-based virtual hosting.
Ans: A persistent volume (PV) in Kubernetes is a piece of storage that is not tied to a specific pod or node. It is used to provide persistent storage for pods, allowing them to retain data even if the pod is deleted or moved to another node. PVs are typically provisioned by an administrator and are then claimed by a persistent volume claim (PVC). The PV and PVC are used to mount storage to a pod.
Ans: Kubernetes makes it easy to scale your applications up or down based on demand. You can use the “kubect1” command-line tool or the Kubernetes API to adjust the number of replicas of a deployment, and Kubernetes will automatically spin up or tear down the necessary containers. You can also set up autoscaling rules that will automatically adjust the number of replicas based on metrics like CPU usage or request rate.
Ans: Kubernetes provides several mechanisms for upgrading and rolling back applications. You can use the “kubect1 set image” command to update the container image for a deployment, and then use the “kubect1 rollout” command to perform a rolling update, which will gradually replace the old containers with the new ones while minimizing downtime. If you need to roll back to a previous version, you can use the “kubect1 rollout undo” command to revert the deployment to a previous revision.
Ans: Kubernetes uses a feature called "service discovery" to make it easy for applications to communicate with each other. When you create a service in Kubernetes, it is given a DNS name and an IP address, and any containers that are part of that service can use the DNS name to communicate with each other. Kubernetes also provides built-in load balancing, so that if you have multiple replicas of a service, incoming traffic will be evenly distributed across them.
Ans: There are several tools and techniques that I would use to monitor the performance of a Kubernetes cluster:
Ans: There are several steps I would take to secure a Kubernetes cluster:
Ans: A blue-green deployment is a technique for rolling out updates to an application without downtime. To perform a blue-green deployment with Kubernetes, I would follow these steps:
Ans: There are several ways to ensure high availability in a Kubernetes cluster, including:
Ans: Persistent storage can be handled in Kubernetes through the use of persistent volumes (PVs) and persistent volume claims (PVCs). PVs represent actual storage resources, while PVCs are requests for those resources. When a PVC is created, it is dynamically matched to an available PV. The PV and PVC are then used to mount storage to a pod.
Ans: There are several ways to scale a Kubernetes application, including:
Kubernetes is a powerful platform for managing containerized applications at scale. It provides a range of features and tools for deployment, scaling, networking, and security, and it is widely used in both production and development environments. If you are preparing for a Kubernetes interview, it is important to have a good understanding of the core concepts and components of the platform, as well as the skills and experience needed to effectively deploy and manage applications on Kubernetes. We hope that this list of Kubernetes interview questions and answers will serve as a helpful resource as you prepare for your interview.
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