What is modeling ?

It is an art of designing the data base. The design of DB depends on the schema and the schema is defined as representation of tables and their relationships.

What is an info cube ?

Info cube is structured as star schema (extended) where a fact table is surrounded by different dim table that are linked with DIM-ids. And the data wise, you will have aggregated data in the cubes.

How would you optimize the dimensions ?

We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.

What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule ?

Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.

Can an Info Object be an Info Provider, how and why ?

Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the Info Area and select 'Insert characteristic as data target'. For example, we can make CUSTOMER as an Info Provider and report on it.

What is Open Hub Service ?

The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the Info Spoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.

How do you transform Open Hub Data ?

Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination requirement.

What is ODS ?

Operational Data Source is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in the ODS. The data is stored in transparent tables.

What are BW Statistics and what is its use ?

They are group of Business Content Info Cubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.

What are the steps to extract data from R/3 ?

Replicate Data Sources

Assign Info Sources

Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules

Create and Info Package

Load Data

What are the delta options available when you load from flat file ?

The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:

Full Upload

New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)

Additive Delta (ODS Object & Info Cube)

What are the extractor types ?

Application Specific

BW Content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO Cockpit

Customer-Generated Extractors


Cross Application (Generic Extractors)

DB View, InfoSet, Function Module

What are the steps involved in LO Extraction ?

The steps are:

RSA5 Select the Data Sources

LBWE Maintain Data Sources and Activate Extract Structures

LBWG Delete Setup Tables

0LI*BW Setup tables

RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables

LBWQ Check the extraction queue

LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures

RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor

How to create a connection with LIS Info Structures ?

LBW0 Connecting LIS Info Structures to BW

What is the difference between ODS and Info Cube and Multi Provider ?

ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drill down and RRI.

CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.

Multi Provider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS, InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.

What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines ?

Start Routines: The start routine is run for each Data Package after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global Data Structures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire Data Package in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.

Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the Info Object level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the Data Source. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.

What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why are they called?

Start routine can be used to access Info Package while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.

What is Star Schema ?

In Star Schema model, Fact table is surrounded by dimensional tables. Fact table is usually very large, that means it contains millions to billions of records. On the other hand dimensional tables are very small. Hence they contain a few thousands to few million records. In practice, Fact table holds transactional data and dimensional table holds master data.

The dimensional tables are specific to a fact table. This means that dimensional tables are not shared to across other fact tables. When other fact table such as a product needs the same product dimension data another dimension table that is specific to a new fact table is needed.

This situation creates data management problems such as master data redundancy because the very same product is duplicated in several dimensional tables instead of sharing from one single master data table. This problem can be solved in extended star schema.

What is slowly changing dimension ?

Dimensions those changes with time are called slowly changing dimension.

What is fact table ?

Fact table is the collection if facts and relations that means foreign keys with the dimension. Actually fact table holds transactional data.

What is dimension table ?

Dimension table is a collection of logically related descriptive attributes that means characteristics.

How many tables does info cube contain ?

Actually info cube contains two tables. E table and F (fact) table.

What is the maximum no. of dimensions in info cube?

16(3 are sap defines and 13 are customer defined)

What are the minimum no of dimensions in info cube?

4(3 Sap defined and 1 customer defined).

What are the 3SAP defined dimensions ?

The 3 SAP defined dimensions are ...

Data packet dimension (P)...it contains 3characteristics.a) request Id (b) Record type (c) Change run id

Time dimension (T)..it contains time characteristics such as 0calmonth, 0calday etc

Unit Dimension (U).it contains basically amount and quantity related units.

What is the model of the info cube ?

Info cube model is extended star schema.

What are the data types for the characteristic info object ?

There are 4 data types:





How you'll write date in BW ?


What is the difference between open sql & native sql ?

Open SQL allows you to access all database tables known to the SAP system, regardless of the database manufacturer. Sometimes, however, we may want to use database-specific SQL statements called Native SQL in your ABAP/4 program.

To avoid incompatibilities between different database tables and also to make ABAP/4 programs independent of the database system in use, SAP has created a set of separate SQL statements called Open SQL. Open SQL contains a subset of standard SQL statements as well as some enhancements which are specific to SAP.

A database interface translates SAP's Open SQL statements into SQL commands specific to the database in use. Native SQL statements access the database directly.

 What is primary index? 

Primary index: the primary index contains key fields of a table and a pointer to non-key fields of the table. The primary index is created automatically when a table is created in database and moreover you can further define reference to the primary index which are known as Secondary index.

What is data class ?

The data class specifies in which table space the table is created in database.

What is pooled table in sap ?

A pool table has many to one relation with the table in the database. For one table in the database there are many tables in the dictionary. The table in the database has a diff name than in the table in the data dict, it has diff no of fields and field names are different. A pooled table is stored in the pool at the database level. A table pool is a database table with a special strut that enables the data of many R3 tables to be stored in it. It can hold only pooled tables.

What is transparent table ?

A transparent table has a one to one relation ship in the database. The table in the dictionary has the same name, same no of fields, and the fields have the same name as in the R3 table defn. A transparent table has application data (Master and Transaction).

What is a buffer and how many types ?

Buffer is nothing but which stores data temporarily. there are two types of buffers. they are Roll and Page areas.

Pages : it stores the application data.

Roll area: it stores the data of previous pages. Data areas of used programs are created in roll areas for each internal session.

What is table maintenance generator and how to create that ? What is the transaction code ?

Table maintenance generator is nothing but making a table available for adding records and deleting records. The transaction code used is SM30.

How to add new fields to a standard sap table ?

Appended structures

Customizing tables

What are lock objects ?

Lock objects are nothing but which holds a data for particular field value until you remove a lock..

What is the use of start-of-selection event ?

Start-of-selection is called implicity even it is not used in the program. start-of-selection is triggered after the standard selection screen has been displayed.

What is the difference between end-of-page and end-of-selection ?

End-of-page : is footer of the page. End-of-selection: is triggered At the end of the processing block.

How to create a button in selection screen ?

Using parametres

Can you call a bdc program from a report ? how ?

Yes through Submit and return

Can you call a transaction from a report ? how ?

Yes Using Call transaction and leave to.

What are ALV reports? how they are different from normal reports ?

These reports are used to find subtotals and totals in a report. If you want i'll give you an example program

What is the use of SLIS type pool in alv reports ?

Slis type pool is a global defination of pool types of catalog structure, table and layout which we use in ALV reports

Difference between top-of-page and top-of-page during at-line- selection ?

Top-of-page is a header on primary list. Top-of-page during line-selection is a header on secondary lists

How many type of internal tables are there ?

Standard, Hashed, Sorted tables

What is the difference between hashed & sorted internal tables ?

Sorted internal table works on Binary Search and Hashed internal tables works on hashed algorithm through indexes.

What is the difference between standard and sorted internal tables ?

Sorted table improve the performance in case of a huge table which has no: of records

When do you need to create an internal table with header line? and with out a header line ? line ?

If we don't want to use any explicit work area then its better to go for an internal table with header line.

Which of these methods can be best used in background process ?

Batch Input method.

What is direct input method?What does an EXEC SQL stmt do in ABAP ? What is the disadvantage of using it ?

Exec Sql [Performing

[Native sql statements]


The above is the syntax for the native sql statements.


Syntax check is not done to statements written inside the EXEC SQL statements.

What are selection texts ?

In the selection screen you can change the name of the field,title etc using selection texts. go to text-> text elements-> selection texts in the menu bar to set selection texts.

What is the client concept in SAP? What is the meaning of client independent ? How to find the return code of a statement in ABAP programs ?

Through functions.

What are steps you follow to improve the performance of a report ?

Use select fields statements (not select *)

Use views rather than tables

Don't use nested Select.

What is the role of ST05 in performance tuning ?

SQL trace

Use select fields statements (not select *)

Use views rather than tables

Don't use nested Select.

What is the role of ST05 in performance tuning ?

SQL trace