Manual Testing Interview Questions

What Is Requirement Traceability Matrix?

Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document which records the mapping between the high-level requirements and the test cases in the form of a table.

That’s how it ensures that the Test Plan covers all the requirements and links to their latest version.

Explain The Difference Between Pilot And Beta Testing?

Read the following points to know the difference between Pilot and Beta testing.

We do the beta test when the product is about to release to the customer whereas pilot testing takes place in the earlier phase of the development cycle.

In the beta test, testing application is given to few users to make sure that application meet the customer requirements and does not contain any showstopper bug. Whereas, in the pilot test, few members of the testing team work at the Customer site to set up the product. They give their feedback also to improve the quality of the end product.

What is Acceptance Testing?

Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

What is Automated Testing?

Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.

What is Bottom Up Testing?

An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

What is Boundary Testing?

Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

What is Application Binary Interface (ABI)?

A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.

What is Application Programming Interface (API)?

A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.

What is Basis Path Testing?

A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

What is Basis Set?

The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

What Is Recovery Testing?

It ensures that the program must recover from any expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality.

Events could be like shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

What is Baseline?

The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.

What is Capture/Replay Tool?

A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

What Is Ramp Testing?

It is a testing method which proposes to raise an input signal until the system breaks down.

What is CMM?

The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

Describe How To Perform Risk Analysis During Software Testing?

Risk analysis is the process of identifying the hidden issues that may derail the successful delivery of the application. It also prioritizes the sequence of resolving the identified risks for testing purpose.

Following are some of the risks that are of concern to the QA.

New Hardware.

New Technology.

New Automation Tool.

The sequence of code delivery.

Availability of test resources for the application.

What Is The Difference Between Master Test Plan And Test Plan?

The difference between Master Plan and Test Plan can be described using following points.

-Master Test Plan contains all the test scenarios and risks prone areas of the application. Whereas, Test Plan document contains test cases corresponding to test scenarios.

-Master Test Plan captures each and every test to be run during the overall development of application whereas test plan describes the scope, approach, resources and schedule of performing the test.

-MTP includes test scenarios to be executed in all the phases of testing that run during the complete life cycle of the application development. Whereas, a separate Test Plan exists for each phase of testing like Unit, Functional, and System which contains the test cases related to that type only.

-Only for big projects, we need a Master Test Plan which requires execution in all phases of testing. However, preparing a basic Test Plan is enough for small projects.

How Do You Perform Automated Testing In Your Environment?

Automation Testing is a process of executing tests automatically. It reduces the human intervention to a great extent. We use different test automation tools like QTP, Selenium, and WinRunner. These tools help in speeding up the testing tasks.

Using the above tools we can create test scripts to verify the application automatically. After completing the test execution, these tools also generate the test reports.

What Is Agile Testing And Why Is It Important?

Agile testing is a software testing process which evaluates a software from the customer point of view. And it is important because this does not require Dev to complete coding for starting QA. Instead, the coding and testing both goes hand in hand. However, it may require continuous customer interaction.

What Is Entry And Exit Criteria In Software Testing?

Entry criteria – It is a process that should run when a system begins. It includes the following artifacts.

SRS (Software Requirement Specification)

FRS (Functional Requirement Specification)

Use case



Exit Criteria – It signals when the testing should complete and when should the product be ready to release. It includes the following artifacts.

Test Summary Report


Defect Analysis report

What Is Smoke Testing And What Is Sanity?

Smoke testing confirms the basic functionality works for a product. It requires you to identify the most basic test cases for execution.

Sanity testing, on the other hand, ensures that the product runs without any logical errors. For example, if we are testing a calculator app; we may multiply a number by 3 and check whether the sum of the digits of the answer is divisible by 3.

Can We Do System Testing At Any Stage?

No. The system testing should start only if all modules arc in place and work correctly. However, it should happen before the UAT (User Acceptance testing).

What Is The Difference Between Static Testing And Dynamic Testing?

Static Testing.

-It is a white box testing technique which directs the developers to verify their code with the help of checklist to find errors in it.

-Developers can start it done without actually finalizing the application or program.

-Static testing is more cost effective than Dynamic testing.

-It covers more areas than Dynamic testing in a shorter time.

Dynamic Testing.

-Dynamic testing involves the execution of an actual application with valid inputs and checking of the expected output.

-Examples of Dynamic testing are Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing.

-Dynamic testing happens after the code deployment.

-It starts during the validation stage.

What Kind Of Document Will You Need To Begin Functional Testing?

-It is none other than the Functional specification document. It defines the full functionality of a product.

-Other documents are also useful in testing like user manual and BRS.

-Gap analysis is another document which can help in understanding the expected and existing system.

What Is Risk Analysis?

Risk analysis is a technique to identify the things that can go wrong in a software development project. They can negatively impact the scope, quality, timeliness, and cost of a project.

However, everyone involved in the project has a part in minimizing the risk. But it’s the lead who ensures that whole team understands the individual role in managing the risk.

What Is The Difference Between Coupling And Cohesion?

The difference between coupling and cohesion is as follows.

-Cohesion is the degree which measures the dependency of the software component that combines related functionality into a single unit whereas coupling represents the binding of related functionality into a different unit.

-Cohesion deals with the functionality that relates to different process within a single module whereas coupling deals with how much one module is dependent on the other modules within the product.

-It is a good practice to increase the cohesion between the software whereas coupling is discouraged