Types of Functions in C

21 September, 2018

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Different types of Functions in C Language

Library functions :

These all are set of pre-implemented f’ns which is available along with compiler
  • The implementation part of the predefined f’n is available in library files. I.e “.lib” or “.obj” files
  • .lib or .obj files contains pre-compiled code.
  • When we are working with pre-defined f’ns to avoid the compilation errors, we require to go for headerfiles
  • Always headerfiles doesn’t contains any implementation part of predefined f’ns, it contains only prototype.

Limitations :

  • All predefined f’ns contains limited task only. i.e for what purpose is implemented, for same purpose it will use.
  • As a programmer, we don’t having any controls on pre-defined f’ns, because coding part is not available.
  • As a programmer, we can’t alter or modify the behavior of any predefined f’n
  • In implemention, whenever a pre-defined f’n is not supporting user requirement , then go for user defined f’n

User defined function : -

Accoring to the project requirement or according to the client requirement , if we implementing any new f’n, it is called user defined f’n As a programmer, we are having full controls  on any user defined f’n, because coding part is available in user readable format.
  • As a programmer, it is possible to change or alter the behavior of any user defined f’n
  • User defined f’ns are classified into “4” types i.e,
  1. Functions with no arguments are no return value
  2. Functions with arguments and no return type
  3. Function with no arguments and one return value.
Note: All pre-defined f’ns are user defined f’ns only because somewhere else another programmer is implemented these f’ns and we are using in the form of object code. So, it became pre-defined f’ns for us.  

ABOUT mian() :

  • main is an identifier in the program, which indicates startup point of an application.
  • Main is a user defined f’n with predefined signature for linker.
  • Always main f’n will indicates from which location program need to be starts.
  • Without using main f’n , we can implement the program but execution is not possibe. In this case, compilation became success but linking became error.
  • It is possible to change the name of the main() f’n, but if we are changing the main, then mandatary to implement with another f’n with the name called main.
  • Generally main() f’n doesn’t returns any value that’s why return type of the main f’n is valid.
  • In implementation, when we require to provide exit status of an application back to the “OS” then specify the return type as an int.
  • void main() doesn’t provides any exit status back to the operating system
  • Int main() will provide exit status back to the “os” e success or failure
  • In implementation when we need to return the exit status as a success then specify the return value as “0” i.e “return 0”
  • Whenever we need to inform the exit status as failure, then return value is “1” i.e “return 1”
  • whenever main f’n return type is an int, it is possible to return the value from range of -32768 to +32768 but except 0 and 1 , rest of all exit codes ae meaningless.
  • Whenever the user is terminating the program explicitly then exit code is -1

void main()

{ printf(“\n welcome abc”); }  

void main()     //&main

{ printf(“\n welcome main1”); abc();     // calling &abc(); abc();     // calling &abc(); printf(“\n welcome main2”); } welcome abc welcome abc welcome main2 2A ‘c’ program is a collection of predefined and user defiend f’ns
  • Always compilation process will takes place from top to bottom, execution process will starts from main and ends with main only.
  • In order to compile the program, if any f’ns are occur, then it will generates a unique identification value called f’n address
  • At the end of calling any f’n address, it is called binding process.
  • With the help of binding process, compiler will recognize that which f’n need to be called at the time of execution.

void main()                   // address of xyz

{ printf("\n Hello to xyz”); }

void abc()  // & abc

{ printf(“\nHello abc”); xyz(); // calling  &xyz }  

void main()                   //& main

{ printf(“\n Hello main”); xyz();          //calling &xyz() abc();                   // calling &abc(); } o/p : Hello main Hello xyz Hello abc Hello xyz  
  • When we are working with the f’ns, it is possible to implement randomly, i.e in any sequence , f’ns can be implemented.
  • From any f’ns, we can invoke any other f’n
  • After execution of any f’n, automatically control will pass back to the calling location, i.e , from which place we called the f’n , to come place it will pass

void main()

{ printf(“\n welcome main”); } void abc() { printf(“\n welcome abc”); } o/p : Type mismatch in redeclaration of ‘abc’    

 void abc()

{ } void main()                                                         Parameter - > void {                                                                           No of parameters abc(); } 21
  • Whenever the f’n is compiler before calling then along with the address, type information will maintain by compiler, i.e return type, parameter type and no.of parameters.
  • Whenever the f’n is comiling after calling then automatically compiler will main default type information i.e return type as an int, parameter type is void and no.of parameters are zero.
  • In above program, compiler is expecting the return type as an int, but actually return type is void. So , mismatch will occur
  • In implementation , whenever we are calling a f’n which is defined later, then for avoiding the compilation error, we required to go for prototype, i.e forward declaration is required.
  • Declaration of f’n is required to specify return type. name of the fu’n and parameter type information.
  • Forward declaration statement will provides type information explicitly so, compiler doesn’t takes any default information

void main()

{ void abc(void);             //declaration // void abc(); printf(“\n welcome main”); abc(); }  

void abc()

{ printf(“\n welcome abc”); } o/p : welcome main welcome abc    

void abc()

{ printf(“\n welcome abc”); xyz(); }  

void main()

{ printf(“\n Hello main”); xyz(); abc(); }  

void xyz()

{ printf(“\n welcome xyz”); } o/p : Error type mismatch in redeclaration of ‘xyz’
  • In order to call the xyz f’n in abc and main we require to go for forward declaration of xyz in abc and main also.
  • In implementation when we require to provide the forward declaration of a f’n more than once then recommended to go for global declaration
  • Whenever we are declaring a f’n top of a program before defining the first f’n then it is called global declaration
  • If the global declaration is available. then doesn’t required to go for local declaration. IF local declaration also available, then global declaration will ignore.

void xyz();           // global declaration

void abc(); { // void xyz(); // local declaration printf(“\n welcome abc”); xyz(); } void main() { // void xyz(); local declaration printf(“/n hello main”); xyz(); abc(); } void xyz() { printf(“\n welcome xyz”); }     o/p : Hello main Welcome xyz Welcome abc; Welcome xyz;
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