Advanced Java Interview Questions

What is a java object and java application?

Java object is an object that is provided by the execution of an application. When an application is compiled an object of that application is being made. Java application on the other hand is a program that is being written in Java and being read by the Java virtual machine.

What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java, and when is it used?

The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that are no longer needed by a program so that their resources can be reclaimed and reused. A Java object is subject to garbage collection when it becomes unreachable to the program in which it is used.

Advantages and disadvantages of Java Sockets.

Advantages of Java Sockets :

– Sockets are flexible and easy to implemented for general communications.
– Sockets cause low network traffic unlike HTML forms and CGI scripts that generate and transfer whole web pages for each new request.

Disadvantages of Java Sockets :

– Socket based communications allows only to send packets of raw data between applications.
– Both the client-side and server-side have to provide mechanisms to make the data useful in any way.

Describe synchronization in respect to multithreading.

With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared variable while another thread is in the process of using or updating same shared variable. This usually leads to significant errors.

Explain different way of using thread?

The thread could be implemented by using runnable interface or by inheriting from the Thread class. The former is more advantageous, ’cause when you are going for multiple inheritance.the only interface can help.

What is an immutable class? How to create an immutable class?

Immutable class is a class which once created, it’s contents can not be changed.
– Immutable objects are the objects whose state can not be changed once constructed.
– Since the state of the immutable objects can not be changed once they are created they are automatically synchronized/thread-safe.
– Immutable objects are automatically thread-safe since the state of the immutable objects can not be changed once they are created
– All wrapper classes in java.lang are immutable, i.e. String, Integer, Boolean, Character, Byte, Short, Long, Float, Double, BigDecimal, BigInteger

What are pass by reference and passby value?

Pass By Reference means the passing the address itself rather than passing the value. Passby Value means passing a copy of the value to be passed.

What are the difference between ArrayList and vector.

– ArrayList is not thread-safe whereas Vector is thread-safe.
– In Vector class each method is surrounded with a synchronized block and thus making Vector class thread-safe.
– Both the ArrayList and Vector hold onto their contents using an Array.
– When an element is inserted into an ArrayList or a Vector, the object will need to expand its internal array if it runs out of room.
– A Vector defaults to doubling the size of its array, while the ArrayList increases its array size by 50 percent.

What is HashMap and Map?

Map is Interface and Hashmap is class that implements that.

Difference between HashMap and HashTable?

The HashMap class is roughly equivalent to Hashtable, except that it is unsynchronized and permits nulls. (HashMap allows null values as key and value whereas Hashtable doesnt allow). HashMap does not guarantee that the order of the map will remain constant over time. HashMap is unsynchronized and Hashtable is synchronized.

What is the difference between a constructor and a method?

A constructor is a member function of a class that is used to create objects of that class. It has the same name as the class itself, has no return type, and is invoked using the new operator. A method is an ordinary member function of a class. It has its own name, a return type (which may be void), and is invoked using the dot operator.

What is an Iterator?

Some of the collection classes provide traversal of their contents via a java.util.Iterator interface. This interface allows you to walk through a collection of objects, operating on each object in turn. Remember when using Iterators that they contain a snapshot of the collection at the time the Iterator was obtained; generally it is not advisable to modify the collection itself while traversing an Iterator.

 

What is the difference between multitasking and multithreading?

Multitasking includes two ways for representation :

1. Preemptive multitasking: where the system terminates the idle process without asking the user. For example: Unix/Linux, Windows NT
2. Non-preemptive multitasking: where the system ask the process to give the control to other process for execution. For example: Windows 3.1 and Mac OS 9.

Multithreading :

1. Multithreaded programs are the program that extend the functionality of the multitasking by dividing the program in thread and then execute the task as individual threads.
2. Threads run in a different area and each thread utilizes some amount of CPU and memory for execution.

What is the difference between an Interface and an Abstract class?

An abstract class can have instance methods that implement a default behavior. An Interface can only declare constants and instance methods, but cannot implement default behavior and all methods are implicitly abstract. An interface has all public members and no implementation. An abstract class is a class which may have the usual flavors of class members (private, protected, etc.), but has some abstract methods.

What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java, and when is it used?

The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that are no longer needed by a program so that their resources can be reclaimed and reused. A Java object is subject to garbage collection when it becomes unreachable to the program in which it is used.

Difference between Vector and ArrayList?

Vector is synchronized whereas arraylist is not.

What is the difference between multiple processes and multiple threads?

– Multiple processes are the way to provide multitasking environment to the user to allow him to switch over to different programs quickly. In these processes, it consists of complete set of its own variables and data. Multiple threads share the same variable and same data. Multiple processes are safe to use but multiple threads are riskier in the sense that they share the same data.

– Multiple processes have much more overhead but multiple threads have less overhead and individual threads can be stand alone if other threads are destroyed.

– In multiple processes inter communication is slower and more restrictive, whereas communication between threads are faster.

What is an abstract class?

Abstract class must be extended/subclassed (to be useful). It serves as a template. A class that is abstract may not be instantiated (ie, you may not call its constructor), abstract class may contain static data. Any class with an abstract method is automatically abstract itself, and must be declared as such. A class may be declared abstract even if it has no abstract methods. This prevents it from being instantiated.

What is static in java?

Static means one per class, not one for each object no matter how many instance of a class might exist. This means that you can use them without creating an instance of a class. Static methods are implicitly final, because overriding is done based on the type of the object, and static methods are attached to a class, not an object. A static method in a superclass can be shadowed by another static method in a subclass, as long as the original method was not declared final. However, you can’t override a static method with a nonstatic method. In other words, you can’t change a static method into an instance method in a subclass.

What is final?

A final class can’t be extended ie., final class may not be subclassed. A final method can’t be overridden when its class is inherited. You can’t change value of a final variable (is a constant).

What if the main method is declared as private?

The program compiles properly but at runtime it will give “Main method not public.” message.

What if the static modifier is removed from the signature of the main method?

Program compiles. But at runtime throws an error “NoSuchMethodError”.

What if I write static public void instead of public static void?

Program compiles and runs properly.

What if I do not provide the String array as the argument to the method?

Program compiles but throws a runtime error “NoSuchMethodError”.

What is the first argument of the String array in main method?

The String array is empty. It does not have any element. This is unlike C/C++ where the first element by default is the program name.

If I do not provide any arguments on the command line, then the String array of Main method will be empty or null?

It is empty. But not null.

How can one prove that the array is not null but empty using one line of code?

Print args.length. It will print 0. That means it is empty. But if it would have been null then it would have thrown a NullPointerException on attempting to print args.length.

Can an application have multiple classes having main method?

Yes it is possible. While starting the application we mention the class name to be run. The JVM will look for the Main method only in the class whose name you have mentioned. Hence there is not conflict amongst the multiple classes having main method.

Can I have multiple main methods in the same class?

No the program fails to compile. The compiler says that the main method is already defined in the class.

Do I need to import java.lang package any time? Why ?

No. It is by default loaded internally by the JVM.

Can I import same package/class twice? Will the JVM load the package twice at runtime?

One can import the same package or same class multiple times. Neither compiler nor JVM complains abt it. And the JVM will internally load the class only once no matter how many times you import the same class.

What are Checked and UnChecked Exception?

A checked exception is some subclass of Exception (or Exception itself), excluding class RuntimeException and its subclasses. Making an exception checked forces client programmers to deal with the possibility that the exception will be thrown. eg, IOException thrown by java.io.FileInputStream’s read() method Unchecked exceptions are RuntimeException and any of its subclasses. Class Error and its subclasses also are unchecked. With an unchecked exception, however, the compiler doesn’t force client programmers either to catch the exception or declare it in a throws clause. In fact, client programmers may not even know that the exception could be thrown. eg, StringIndexOutOfBoundsException thrown by String’s charAt() methodChecked exceptions must be caught at compile time. Runtime exceptions do not need to be. Errors often cannot be.

What is Overriding?

When a class defines a method using the same name, return type, and arguments as a method in its superclass, the method in the class overrides the method in the superclass. When the method is invoked for an object of the class, it is the new definition of the method that is called, and not the method definition from superclass. Methods may be overridden to be more public, not more private.

What are different types of inner classes?

Nested top-level classes, Member classes, Local classes, Anonymous classes Nested top-level classes- If you declare a class within a class and specify the static modifier, the compiler treats the class just like any other top-level class. Any class outside the declaring class accesses the nested class with the declaring class name acting similarly to a package. eg, outer.inner. Top-level inner classes implicitly have access only to static variables.There can also be inner interfaces. All of these are of the nested top-level variety. Member classes – Member inner classes are just like other member methods and member variables and access to the member class is restricted, just like methods and variables. This means a public member class acts similarly to a nested top-level class. The primary difference between member classes and nested top-level classes is that member classes have access to the specific instance of the enclosing class. Local classes – Local classes are like local variables, specific to a block of code. Their visibility is only within the block of their declaration. In order for the class to be useful beyond the declaration block, it would need to implement a more publicly available interface.Because local classes are not members, the modifiers public, protected, private, and static are not usable. Anonymous classes – Anonymous inner classes extend local inner classes one level further. As anonymous classes have no name, you cannot provide a constructor.

Are the imports checked for validity at compile time? e.g. will the code containing an import such as java.lang.ABCD compile?

Yes the imports are checked for the semantic validity at compile time. The code containing above line of import will not compile. It will throw an error saying,can not resolve symbol symbol : class ABCD location: package io import java.io.ABCD;

Does importing a package imports the subpackages as well? e.g. Does importing com.MyTest.* also import com.MyTest.UnitTests.*?

No you will have to import the subpackages explicitly. Importing com.MyTest.* will import classes in the package MyTest only. It will not import any class in any of it’s subpackage.

What is the difference between declaring a variable and defining a variable?

In declaration we just mention the type of the variable and it’s name. We do not initialize it. But defining means declaration + initialization.

e.g String s; is just a declaration while String s = new String (“abcd”); Or String s = “abcd”; are both definitions.

What is the default value of an object reference declared as an instance variable?

null unless we define it explicitly.

Can a top level class be private or protected? A: No. A top level clas.s can not be private or protected. It can have either “public” or no modifier. If it

does not have a modifier it is supposed to have a default access.If a top level class is declared as private the compiler will complain that the “modifier private is not allowed here”. This means that a top level class can not be private. Same is the case with protected.

What type of parameter passing does Java support?

In Java the arguments are always passed by value .

Primitive data types are passed by reference or pass by value?

Primitive data types are passed by value.

Objects are passed by value or by reference?

Java only supports pass by value. With objects, the object reference itself is passed by value and so both the original reference and parameter copy both refer to the same object .

What is serialization?

Serialization is a mechanism by which you can save the state of an object by converting it to a byte stream.

How do I serialize an object to a file?

The class whose instances are to be serialized should implement an interface Serializable. Then you pass the instance to the ObjectOutputStream which is connected to a fileoutputstream. This will save the object to a file.

Which methods of Serializable interface should I implement?

The serializable interface is an empty interface, it does not contain any methods. So we do not implement any methods.

How can I customize the seralization process? i.e. how can one have a control over the serialization process?

Yes it is possible to have control over serialization process. The class should implement Externalizable interface. This interface contains two methods namely readExternal and writeExternal. You should implement these methods and write the logic for customizing the serialization process.

What is the common usage of serialization?

Whenever an object is to be sent over the network, objects need to be serialized. Moreover if the state of an object is to be saved, objects need to be serilazed.

What is Externalizable interface?

Externalizable is an interface which contains two methods readExternal and writeExternal. These methods give you a control over the serialization mechanism. Thus if your class implements this interface, you can customize the serialization process by implementing these methods.

When you serialize an object, what happens to the object references included in the object?

The serialization mechanism generates an object graph for serialization. Thus it determines whether the included object references are serializable or not. This is a recursive process. Thus when an object is serialized, all the included objects are also serialized alongwith the original obect.

What one should take care of while serializing the object?

One should make sure that all the included objects are also serializable. If any of the objects is not serializable then it throws a NotSerializableException.

What happens to the static fields of a class during serialization?

There are three exceptions in which serialization doesnot necessarily read and write to the stream. These are 1. Serialization ignores static fields, because they are not part of ay particular state state. 2. Base class fields are only hendled if the base class itself is serializable. 3. Transient fields

How does an exception permeate through the code?

An unhandled exception moves up the method stack in search of a matching When an exception is thrown from a code which is wrapped in a try block followed by one or more catch blocks, a search is made for matching catch block. If a matching type is found then that block will be invoked. If a matching type is not found then the exception moves up the method stack and reaches the caller method. Same procedure is repeated if the caller method is included in a try catch block. This process continues until a catch block handling the appropriate type of exception is found. If it does not find such a block then finally the program terminates.

What are the different ways to handle exceptions?

There are two ways to handle exceptions, 1. By wrapping the desired code in a try block followed by a catch block to catch the exceptions. and 2. List the desired exceptions in the throws clause of the method and let the caller of the method hadle those exceptions.

What is the basic difference between the 2 approaches to exception handling.

1> try catch block and 2> specifying the candidate exceptions in the throws clause?

When should you use which approach?

In the first approach as a programmer of the method, you urself are dealing with the exception. This is fine if you are in a best position to decide should be done in case of an exception. Whereas if it is not the responsibility of the method to deal with it’s own exceptions, then do not use this approach. In this case use the second approach. In the second approach we are forcing the caller of the method to catch the exceptions, that the method is likely to throw. This is often the approach library creators use. They list the exception in the throws clause and we must catch them. You will find the same approach throughout the java libraries we use.

Is it necessary that each try block must be followed by a catch block?

It is not necessary that each try block must be followed by a catch block. It should be followed by either a catch block OR a finally block. And whatever exceptions are likely to be thrown should be declared in the throws clause of the method.

If I write return at the end of the try block, will the finally block still execute?

Yes even if you write return as the last statement in the try block and no exception occurs, the finally block will execute. The finally block will execute and then the control return.

If I write System.exit (0); at the end of the try block, will the finally block still execute?

No in this case the finally block will not execute because when you say System.exit (0); the control immediately goes out of the program, and thus finally never executes.

How are Observer and Observable used?

Objects that subclass the Observable class maintain a list of observers. When an Observable object is updated it invokes the update() method of each of its observers to notify the observers that it has changed state. The Observer interface is implemented by objects that observe Observable objects.

What is synchronization and why is it important?

With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object’s value. This often leads to significant errors.

How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?

It uses those low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of the type allowed by the operation.

 

 

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