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Using a Text Editor

Text Editors in Unix

Being able to use a text editor is probably one of the most critical skills to have as a system administrator. You constantly need to edit con fig files, write scripts or make changes to system files …….. all of which require you to use a text editor.

  • The three most popular editors available today include

Vi(or) Vim:      Text editor with great flexibility.

Emacs  :           similar to vi, an advanced text editor with many features.

Nano   :           A basic text editor for quick editing

  • Vi (or) Vim Editor:
  • Using this editor to create new files, open the files and modifying the data into a existing files.
  • The Vi Editor is most popular
  • It has three modes:
    • Command mode
    • Insert mode
    • Execution (or) colon mode
  • By default mode is command mode

Syn:  Vim [arguments]   [file]

Arguments:                 –           R    —–> opens a file in read –only mode

–           o    —–> Open two files at a time

+      —–> Starts at the end of the file

+          <rum>    —–> Start at line <num>




Insert mode options:

i ——–> To begin insert mode at the current cursor position.

I ——–>To Insert at the beginning of the current line

a——–>To append to the next word’s letter.

——–> To append at the end of the line

o  ——–>To insert a new line below the cursor position.

O  ——–>  To Insert a new line above the cursor position.


Commands for command mode:

e  ——–> Moves to the end of a word

b  ——–> Moves to the beginning of a word.

$  ——–>Moves to the end of a line.

˄   ——–>Moves to the beginning of a line

H ——–>Moves to the first line onscreen

M ——–> Moves to the middle line onscreen

L  ——–>Moves to the last line onscreen

x (nx) ——–>Deletes current character.

dd (ndd)——–>Deletes the current line

dw (ndw)——–>Deletes current word.

Yy(nyy)  ——–> yanks (copies) the current line

p ——–>paste below the cursor line

P  ——–>paste above the cursor line

U——–>undo the last action.

gg(ngg)——–>go to beginning of the file

G ——–>End of the file.

W (n)——–>To move the cursor forward, word by word.

b(n) ——–> To move the cursor back word, word by word

Ctrl +f ——–>To forward one page.

Ctrl +b ——–>To back word one page.

/  ——–>To search a word in the file.

n ——–>Find next occurrence of search word.

N ——–> find previous occurrence of search word.

.  ——–> Repeat last command action.

Commands for last line mode:

:q  ——–>To quit without saving

:w   ——–>To save the changes


:wq    ——–>To save & quit


:wq!  (or)   😡  ——–>  To save & quit with forcefully.


:set nu  (or)    :se nu ——-> To setting line numbers.



:set nonu   (or)   :se nonu——> To remove line numbers.


:n  ——>Jumps to line n

:$d ——>To delete last line

:! <unixcmd> ——> To execute unix cmds

😡  ——>To give password to the file and remove password.

:/storing / ——>search a word in the file.

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  • To find & Replace:

: % S/root/dog/             To replace storing “dog” for the first instance

: %s/root/dog/g              For each instance of a line.

: %s/root/dog/gi             To ignore case sensitive

: %s/root/dog/gc             ask for confirmation



  • Executing unix commands in vi:

Any unix command can be Executed from the vi command line by typing an “!” before the unix command.


: ! Pwd

: r ! data           Reads the results from the date command into a new line following the cursor

: r ! cat file1

  • I want to copy 1,4 lines to paste after 10th line:

:  1,4 CO 10

  • I want to move 3,7 lines after 8th line:

: 3,7 mo 8

  • I want to copy 1,30 lines create a new file:

: 1,30 w test1

  • I want to append the data into a existing file:

:  8,20 w >> test1

  • I want to insert end of the line (or) we require line

: r/etc/passwd


Managing two files at time:

$vim    -0 file1 file2


$vim file1 file2


:n    —-> edit next file (file2)

:rew   —-> Rewind to the file (file1)


  • To move one file to another file (ctrl + W)

Press two times

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