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UNIX Commands

Ten ESSENTIAL UNIX Commands

These are ten commands that you really need to know in order to get started with UNIX. They are probably similar to commands you already know for another operating system.

CommandExampleDescription
  1.    ls
ls
ls –alF
Lists files in current directory
List in long format
  1.    cd
cd tempdir
cd ..
cd ~dhyatt/web-docs
Change directory to tempdir
Move back one directory
Move into dhyatt’s web-docs directory
  1.    mkdir
mkdir graphicsMake a directory called graphics
  1.    rmdir
rmdir emptydirRemove directory (must be empty)
  1.    cp
cp file1 web-docs
cp file1 file1.bak
Copy file into directory
Make backup of file1
  1.    rm
rm file1.bak
rm *.tmp
Remove or delete file
Remove all file
  1.    mv
mv old.html new.htmlMove or rename files
  1.    more
more index.htmlLook at file, one page at a time
  1.    lpr
lpr index.htmlSend file to printer
  1.  man
man lsOnline manual (help) about command

 

Ten VALUABLE UNIX Commands

Once you have mastered the basic UNIX commands, these will be quite valuable in managing your own account.

CommandExampleDescription
  1.    grep <str><files>
grep “bad word” *Find which files contain a certain word
  1.    chmod <opt> <file>
chmod 644 *.html
chmod 755 file.exe
Change file permissions read only
Change file permissions to executable
  1.    passwd
passwdChange passwd
  1.    ps <opt>
ps aux
ps -ef   |   grep java
List all running processes by #ID
List process #ID’s running by java
  1.    kill <opt> <ID>
kill -9 8453Kill process with ID #8453
  1.    gcc (g++) <source>
gcc file.c -o file
g++ fil2.cpp -o fil2
Compile a program written in C
Compile a program written in C++
  1.    gzip <file>
gzip bigfile
gunzip bigfile.gz
Compress file
Uncompress file
  1.    mail
    (pine)
mail me@tjhsst.edu < file1
pine
Send file1 by email to someone
Read mail using pine
  1.    telnet <host>
    ssh <host>
telnet vortex.tjhsst.edu
ssh -l dhyatt jazz.tjhsst.edu
Open a connection to vortex
Open a secure connection to jazz as user dhyatt
  1.  ftp <host>
    ncftp <host/directory>
ftp station1.tjhsst.edu
ncftp metalab.unc.edu
Upload or Download files to station1
Connect to archives at UNC

 

Ten FUN UNIX Commands

These are ten commands that you might find interesting or amusing. They are actually quite helpful at times, and should not be considered idle entertainment.

CommandExampleDescription
  1.    who
whoLists who is logged on your machine
  1.    finger
fingerLists who is on computers in the lab
  1.    ytalk <user@place>
ytalk dhyatt@threatTalk online with dhyatt who is on threat
  1.    history
historyLists commands you’ve done recently
  1.    fortune
fortunePrint random humerous message
  1.    date
datePrint out current date
  1.    cal <mo> <yr>
cal 9 2000Print calendar for September 2000
  1.    xeyes
xeyes &Keep track of cursor (in “background”)
  1.    xcalc
xcalc &Calculator (“background” process)
  1.  mpage <opt> <file>
mpage -8 file1   |  lprPrint 8 pages on a single sheet and send to printer (the font will be small!)

 

Ten HELPFUL UNIX Commands

These ten commands are very helpful, especially with graphics and word processing type applications.

CommandExampleDescription
  1.    netscape
netscape &Run Netscape browser
  1.    xv
xv &Run graphics file converter
  1.    xfig / xpaint
xfig & (xpaint &)Run drawing program
  1.    gimp
gimp &Run photoshop type program
  1.    ispell <fname>
ispell file1Spell check file1
  1.    latex <fname>
latex file.texRun LaTeX, a scientific document tool
  1.    xemacs / pico
xemacs (or pico)Different editors
  1.    soffice
soffice &Run StarOffice, a full word processor
  1.    m-tools (mdir, mcopy,
    mdel, mformat, etc. )
mdir a:
mcopy file1   a:
DOS commands from UNIX (dir A:)
Copy file1 to A:
  1.  gnuplot
gnuplotPlot data graphically

 

Ten USEFUL UNIX Commands:

These ten commands are useful for monitoring system access, or simplifying your own environment.

CommandExampleDescription
  1.    df
dfSee how much free disk space
  1.    du
du -b subdirEstimate disk usage of directory in Bytes
  1.    alias
alias lls=”ls -alF”Create new command “lls” for long format of ls
  1.    xhost
xhost + threat.tjhsst.edu
xhost –
Permit window to display from x-window program from threat
Allow no x-window access from other systems
  1.    fold
fold -s file1   |   lprFold or break long lines at 60 characters and send to printer
  1.    tar
tar -cf subdir.tar subdir
tar -xvf subdir.tar
Create an archive called subdir.tar of a directory
Extract files from an archive file
  1.    ghostview (gv)
gv filename.psView a Postscript file
  1.    ping
    (traceroute)
ping threat.tjhsst.edu
traceroute www.yahoo.com
See if machine is alive
Print data path to a machine
  1.    top
topPrint system usage and top resource hogs
  1.  logout (exit)
logout or exitHow to quit a UNIX shell.

 

To check your disk utilization on Solaris or Linux, use the iostat -D <interval> command, where the interval value determines how many seconds you want to elapse between monitoring cycles. To check your CPU utilization, simply leave off the -D flag (iostat <interval>).

For Windows, use the Performance Monitor tool (perfmon), to monitor both your disk and CPU utilization.

 

TCP (transmission control protocol) socket performance, set the tcp_time_wait_interval parameter as follows:

ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_time_wait_interval 60000

 

Check the amount of data transferred between the application and the application server, and between the application server and the database server.

netstat -s -P tcp

 

Use Kill -3 PID, where PID is the root of the process tree.

To obtain the root PID, perform a: ps -efHl | grep ‘java’ **. **

 

Summary
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UNIX Commands
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