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SAP SD Tutorials

SAP ERP Sales & Distribution

This course is focused on the SAP ERP applications, which is the follow-up product to SAP R/3 software. SAP ERP is one of the applications within the SAP Business Suite, which includes

My   SAP ERP

MY SAP Supply chain Management (SCM)

My SAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

My SAP Supplier relationship Management (SRM)

My SAP Product Lifestyle Management (PLM)

The latest release of SAP ERP is SAP ERP Central Component (ECC6). With SAP ERP there are a number of applications, such as Financials and Manufacturing. Of these applications we are focusing on the Sales and Distribution application.

Implementing SAP ERP Sales & Distribution

My SAP ERP is an application that is designed for mid-size to large customers, as opposed to SAP Business One, which is the application SAP designed for smaller organizations. My SAP ERP is built on the SAP Net weaver platform, which is an open source business process platform that permits customers to create, among other things, tailor-made business solutions. These customized applications can be used in conjunction with powerful, already existing applications of Net weaver to integrate with my SAP ERP, creating solutions ranging, for example, from seamless integration with Microsoft Office to customer- or supplier-facing web portals. This tutorial is not a general list of functionalities found in the SAP Business Suite, nor does it focus on all applications within my SAP ERP, nor is it a list of release notes listing the differences between R/3 and ECC. It is instead a compilation of over a decade of consultants’ hands-on SAP Sales and Distribution implementation advice, all based upon the latest release of my SAP ERP.

SAP Application Integration

SAP is an ERP software product that seamlessly integrates the different functions in a business (such as sales, procurement, and production). SAP provides rich functionality in each of these business areas without sacrificing the convenience of an integrated system. These applications update and process transactions in real time, allowing seemingly effortless integration and communication between areas of a business. For example, you can create a billing document and release it to Accounting and observe the updated billing values in a customer analysis immediately, without having to wait for day-end or month-end processing.

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The SAPGUI

The SAP graphical user interface, or SAPGUI, runs on all well-known operating systems. The appearance of the screens and the menus displayed on them are configurable.

In FCC there are numerous SAPGUIs. For example, the basic SAP screen looks similar to Figure below. This screen will be referred to as the SAP menu. It is often obtainable by using transaction code [S000].

sapgui

There’s also a GUI available for SAP processes, for users without direct access to their desktop computer. This is possible through the use of a web portal as shown in below figure

sapgui_portal

Customizing Tools

The cornerstone to SAP is the ability to configure the system to meet the needs of your business. This is done by customizing or adapting the system and application to respond like your business. This is the process of mapping SAP to your business processes. An example of a business process would be capturing a customer sales order. This process of configuring SAP is generally time consuming and costly, as one needs to fully understand the business processes and then find a solution in SAP to meet these requirements and customize it in the system while at the same time taking into account best business practices, international standards, and possibly a bit of business re-engineering. The objective of this tutorial is to teach vou how to develop and enhance the Sales and Distribution module of my SAP ERP to its fullest potential, using time-saving tips and techniques, in order for you to effectively meet your business objectives.
From SAP version 3, the reference SAP Customizing Implementation Guide was available. Prior to version 3 of SAP, customizing of the system had to be carried out via menu paths and transaction codes, requiring considerably more time. For the purposes of this tutorial we will be using the functionality found in my SAP ECC 5.0 and my SAP ECC 6.0 (ECC – ERP Central Component) as a reference.

Below Figure  is an example of the Implementation Guide (SAP Customizing Implementation Guide) or customizing screen, which we will call the SAP Customizing Implementation Guide.

sapimg

This screen is the backbone for my SAP ERP configuration and determines how the system functions. We will be using this screen extensively for the purpose of configuring the Sales and Distribution module.

My  SAP ERP Applications Overview

My SAP ERP applications are categorized into three core functional areas: Logistics, Financial, and Human Resources. Of these three functional areas, there is a further subdivision into applications or modules. In addition to these applications, SAP has created industry-specific solutions (ISs).  A few examples of these are

  • IS-OIL For oil companies
  • IS-T For the telecommunications sector

Figure 1-3 SAP Customizing Implementation Guide

  • Is – B for banks
  • Is – Retail for retail

In addition to these industry solutions there are standard cross – application components. These tools are not dedicated to one unique application or module; they are used throughout the system to integrate and automate SAP processes.

The following is a brief description and overview of a few of the major functional areas in SAP.

Financial Applications

This application component contains, among others, the following modules:

  • FI Financial Accounting
  • CO Controlling
  • EC Enterprise Controlling
  • IM Investment Management
  • PS Project System

Human Resources Applications

The Human Resources module includes support for salary and payroll administration, as well as areas such as work schedule models. This core functional area is country – specific, due to country – related taxes, employee benefits, and employment laws.

  • PA Personnel Administration
  • PT Personnel time management
  • PY Payroll

Logistics Applications

Logistics (referring to the supply chain) is the largest of the three functional areas. It includes, among others, the following modules:

  • SD Sales and Distribution
  • MM Materials Management
  • PP Production Planning and control
  • LE Logistics Execution
  • QM Quality Management
  • CS Customer Service

We will be focusing on the sap sales and distribution (SD) module of my SAP. 

Sales and Distribution Module (SD)

The Sales and Distribution module remains one of the key modules in my SAPERP. It has always been one of the largest and most complex modules in SAP The SD module is made up of the following multiple components:

  • Basic Functions and Master Data in SD Processing (SD-BF)
  • Pricing and Conditions (SD-BF-PR)
  • Extra Charge (SD-BF-EC)
  • Availability Check and Requirements in Sales and Distribution
  • Credit and Risk Management (SD-BF-CM)
  • Material Sorting (SD-BF-AS)
  • Output Determination (SD-BF-OC)
  • Sales (SD-SLS)
  • Scheduling Agreements for Component Suppliers (SD-SLS-OA)
  • Customer Service Processing (SD-SLS-OA)
  • Foreign Trade/Customs (SD-FT)
  • Billing (SD-BIL)
  • Payment Card Processing (SD-BIL-IV)
  • Sales Support: Computer-Aided Selling (CAS)
  • Electronic Data Interchange/IDoc Interface (SD-EDI)
  • Shipping (LE-SHP)
  • Transportation (LE-TRA)
  • Reports and Analyses (SD-IS-REP)
  •  Business Package for Internal Sales Representative (my SAPERP)

SAP Basics

This section is a guide to navigation and usability of an SAP system from transaction codes to user settings and the matrix copy.

Basic Transaction Codes

Transaction codes are the short path to a specific screen in SAP For example, the transaction code IVA22) brings you to the Change Quotation screen, as shown below. To view the transaction code from within the screen you are accessing, select System | Status. In this tutorial the standard menu path is always described from the SAPEasy Access Screen (unless specifically stated from the SAP Customizing Implementation Guide). This “Easy Access Menu” is generally the first screen that users will face in the system.

sap_sd_change_quotation_screen
Because it is the First screen users will face, it may be highly configured using area menus to restrict the transactions the user will be using. To revert back to the original user menu from this screen, simply select the menu path Menu SAP menu (transaction code S000). An example of using the menu path to get to the SAP customizing implementation guide form the SAP Easy Access Screen is SAP menu Tools Customizing IMG SPRO – Execute Project as shown in below figure. The (SPRO) transaction code is the shortcut for the SAP Customizing Implementation Guide.

sap-sd-menu-path

Here are a number of simple transaction codes you will get accustomed to using:

sap-sd-basic-tcodes
A fantastic navigation tip is to use the central “Easy Access” menu, which provide a menu tailored to the function you rare processing. For example, all transactions related to sales master data may be found by using (VS00). Refer to the following list for transaction codes to further menus.

Naturally, there are thousands of such codes and it would be irrelevant to list them all. However, if anyone is looking for a specific transaction code, a time – saving tip is to use (SE16n) with table TSTC. 

sap-sd-tcodes
To get a list to transactions including a particular text string, use the table TSTCT. You can also use asterisks as wildcards. For example, entering *change mas* in the text field will give you the following list of transactions.

sap-tcodes-3
Note that as transaction codes call up screens, there must be a link from the screen you are trying to access to the relevant screen you wish to call. You will not be able to use the transaction code [VA00] while in the SAP Customizing Implementation Guide because the screen related to [VA00] is not available from within this transaction.

A tip in cases like this is to enter In before the transaction code. For example, [/nVA00] will take you out of whatever transaction you are in to the VA00 screen. The In terminates the transaction you are working with, so be aware that you will lose any unsaved data in the screen you are currently on. As an alternative, you can use /o in front of the transaction code (for example, [/oVA00]. This opens the transaction in a new SAP session, keeping your existing screen in place.

Learn more about SAP SD Interview Questions in this blog post.

Shortcuts in Transaction Codes  

To save time in transferring between screens when you call up a transaction, you can utilize the shortcut commands shown in below table. The following function keys allow for additional shortcuts:

sap-sd-shortcuts
These function codes are to be used from a specific field—for example, from the customer group field. Pressing Fl gives you the Help screen, as shown in above figure. RThe Help dialog box may be displayed differently based upon the user settings. To change the display options of the Help screen, select the menu from the SAP easy access screen [S000] Help I Settings as shown in below figure.

sap-sd-shortcut-commands

From the Help screen, pressing F9 or clicking the Technical Info button, depending on your display option, will give you the technical information screen.

Advisable User Settings

It is expected that you already have a sound knowledge of navigation around SAP, so this tutorial will not detail basic user information. However, there are a few advisable SAP user settings for you to utilize:

Local Data — History Click the Customizing Local Layout icon (shown here), then select Options, and select Local Data tab.

By setting the History to On, you will always have a drop-down list of the values you last used in a selection field, according to the Expiration, Maximum Permitted File Size, and Maximum Number of Entries that you set.

Expert Data — Controls Click the Customizing Local Layout icon (shown earlier), then select Options, and select the Expert tab.

Options selected in match codes are generally created by a key index. This key is not normally available for the user to see. Consequently, people sometimes configure the description of the values that may be selected to describe the key of the object. There is no need to include the key in the description if the users have the Show Keys in All Drop Down Lists” checkbox marked as active. Sort Items by Key ensures the user is presented with a logical list to select from.

The Matrix Copy

The copy and paste function in SAP is called the Matrix Copy. Use the Matrix Copy to copy more than one line of text by clicking on the dialog box or screen one wishes to copy from and pressing the commands as described:

  1. Press CTRL-Y, then select the text by dragging the mouse from the top left to the bottom right of the selection.
  2. Once the text is highlighted, press CTRL-C.
  3. Insert the text by moving to the new location and pressing CTRL-V

Matchcode

A match code is a comparison key. It allows you to locate the key of a particular database record by entering a field value contained in the record. The system then displays a list of records matching the specifications for you to select from. An example of this would be searching for the customer number in the sales order. When you press F4 from within the customer number field, you will have an option to select a suitable matchcode to obtain the customer number you are after. You may also click the drop-down icon from within this selection screen to display a number of different match codes to choose from.

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SAP SD Tutorial and Interview Questions
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