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C++ Tutorials

C++ Tutorials Overview

Welcome to C++ Tutorials. The objective of these tutorials is to provide good understanding on C++ Programming Language. In these tutorials, we will cover topics such as Data Types, Constructors, Functions, Aggregation etc.

In addition to free C++ tutorials, we will cover common interview questions and issues of C++ Programming Language.

C++ History

An object oriented programming language

Initially named C with classes

Developed by Bjourne stroustrip

Renamed as c++ in 1983

The idea comes from C statement operator +*

IS a superset of C

What is C++ ?

C++ is an object oriented programming language

What is language ?

A language is a software computer is an electronic device cannot perform operating by own.

Language provide set of instructions to perform operations by computer.

Language is nothing but programming tool

C++ is the name of the language

‘c’ language is derived from ‘B’ language

‘B’ language is derived from BCPL

‘C’ language develops in the year 1972

C++ language is develops in the year 1980

What is a Program?

Set of instructions or collection of instructions and data.

programming elements are

1) Data

ii) instruction

In order to write a program to required Data and instructions.

programming is nothing but process of organize data and instructions according to given problem

object oriented means rules and regularity 

What is a Programming Concept

Programming principle define set of rules and regulations for organization of data and instructions

Process Monolithic Programming

Process Oriented Programming

Modular Oriented Programming

Structure Oriented Programming

Object Oriented Programming

Application of C++

Using C++ you can develop system software like OS, Device Drivers, Network(N/W) protocols, PC – utilities

Application software you can develop application like

Data base

Word processing

Spread sheet

C++ is a general purpose programming language better than ‘c’

General purpose means it is suitable for developed any type of software.

CUI means character user interface

Programming Concepts

Unstructured Programming / Monolithic Programming

Organizing the data and instructions are organized in sequential manner called Monolithic programming

In this approach instructions organization in sequential order

A sequence is set of instructions used to solve a given problem. ( Assembly level language, Basic)

Program execution is controlled to use a go to statement

Disadvantages

Code redundancy :  same operation has to be more than one time, same sequence has to copied at number of places.

Size of program is increment

Efficiency of program is decreased

Procedural Programming

COBOL and Pascal are called as procedural oriented programming languages.

In this approach instructions organized according to their operations by dividing into small programs or small pieces called sub routine.

A sub routine is a small program within program

This subroutine can be procedure or function

Advantages

Modularity : Dividing a program into small pieces 0 also called as divide and conqueror According to their operations into small module

Reuseability: write code once and use more than once time

Readablity :  Easy to read or understand

Disadvantages

Data is global or local

It emphasis on instructions but not on data.

What is a Modular programming

In modular programming, a module is a programming in this approach, an application contain one or more that one module

Each program is divided into subroutine.

A program which contain a main is called executable module which is compiled as .exe

A program which has doesn’t have main is called reusable module which is compiled as .LIB(Library)

Structured Programming

‘C’ and pascal is called structured programming language

Characteristics of Structured Programming

Modular programming

User defined data types (Pascal)

scoped variables (local & Global)

One subroutine communicate with another by passing values

Top-down approach

Disadvantages

Data is global and global data does not have security

Un-related operation access global data, if leads and logical errors.

debugging application is complex

In a large program identifying which operation perform operation on what data becomes complex.

 

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