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Meta characters (or) wild card characters

Meta characters (or) wild card characters in Unix/Linux:

 (a) *  : It matches zero (or) more characters in the given file


EX:       $  ls  a* —->    Displaying files star with ‘a”.

$  ls  i*   —->     Start with ‘I” end with ‘g’

$ ls   *g     —->     list out  end with ‘g’ only

$ rm I *  —->   removes start with i

$cp  a* Documents/               copies start with a

$ cp   – rf    I * g    Documents /

$  cp  – rvf     *   / backup                   copies current directory all files

(b)   ?     :    It matches any single character in the given file


Ex:        $ ls ?   —->   Display single character files.

$ ls ??  —->    Two character files

$ ls a ???    —->    list four character files but first one is ‘a’.

$ rm ??  —->   Removes two character files.

$ cp ??? Documents/             copies three character files.

(c)  [     ]     :   It matches any single characters in the given list.

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EX:       $ ls [aeiou]   —->   Displays given matching character files.

$ ls [aeiou] *   —->   Displays start with a,e,I,o,u files.

$ rm [aeiou] *  —->    Removing start with a,e,I,o,u

$ cp [aeiou] * Unix/               copying start with a,e,I,o,u



(d)   [  –   ]  : It matches any single characters in the given range.

EX:       $ ls [a-f]  *  —->   Displays start with a,b,c,d,e,f

$ ls [a-f, o-v] *  —->   Display start with a-e & o-v

$ rm  [a-f] *   —->    Removes a-f

$ cp  [a-f, 1-9]  *        Unix/          copying files a-f & 1-9

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