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Winrunner Interview Questions

Explain WinRunner testing process?

Six main stages are involved in WinRunner testing process:

– GUI Map File Creation: By doing this we make GUI object available for the WinRunner test.

– Generating Test Script: by recording, programming, or a combination of both.

– Debugging Test: run tests in Debug mode to remove the errors in Test Script.

– Run Tests: run tests in Verify mode to test application.

– View Results: determines the status of test result, PASS or FAIL.

– Report Defects: when status of test run is fail, then we can report information about the defect directly from the Test Results window.

What is contained in the GUI map?

GUI Map File stores the element identification properties extracted from the application during recording. ID will be generated for each element and this ID is used for Object identification in the application. GUI Map file acts as a repository for the application elements. GUI Map file contains two properties of each object for the identification:

– Physical name of the object

– Logical name of the object

What is a data driven test in WinRunner?

Data Driven is an automation testing part in which test input or output values, these values are read from data files. It is performed when the values are changing by the time. The different data files may include data pools, csv files, Excel files. The data is then loaded into variables in recorded or manually coded scripts. In WinRunner to use data to drive the test, we use the parameterization process.

When we do data-driven test, we perform two extra steps:

– Converting the test to a data-driven test.

– Creating a corresponding data table.

How do you configure GUI map?

-When WinRunner learns the description of a GUI object, it does not learn all its properties. Instead, it learns the minimum number of properties to provide a unique identification of the object.

-Many applications also contain custom GUI objects. A custom object is any object not belonging to one of the standard classes used by WinRunner. These objects are therefore assigned to the generic “object” class. When WinRunner records an operation on a custom object, it generates obj_mouse_ statements in the test script.

-If a custom object is similar to a standard object, you can map it to one of the standard classes. You can also configure the properties WinRunner uses to identify a custom object during Context Sensitive testing. The mapping and the configuration you set are valid only for the current WinRunner session. To make the mapping and the configuration permanent, you must add configuration statements to your startup test script.

What is the purpose of GUI spy?

Using the GUI Spy, you can view the properties of any GUI object on your desktop. You use the Spy pointer to point to an object, and the GUI Spy displays the properties and their values in the GUI Spy dialog box. You can choose to view all the properties of an object, or only the selected set of properties that WinRunner learns.

What is the purpose of different record methods 1) Record 2) Pass up 3) As Object 4) Ignore?

-Record instructs WinRunner to record all operations performed on a GUI object. This is the default record method for all classes. (The only exception is the static class (static text), for which the default is Pass Up.)

-Pass Up instructs WinRunner to record an operation performed on this class as an operation performed on the element containing the object. Usually this element is a window, and the operation is recorded as win_mouse_click.

-As Object instructs WinRunner to record all operations performed on a GUI object as though its class were “object” class.

-Ignore instructs WinRunner to disregard all operations performed on the class.

How to perform debugging of the scripts?

Debugging of the test script can be performed in following steps:

-To enable the script debugger, choose TOOL menus and select Script Debugger.

-Run the test script

-Choose from the following option:

Step over: execute the script one at a time.

Step In: execute the script one at a time.

Step Out:

Set next step:

Run/pause

Halt script:

Set/clear break point.

Edit script

Open close data viewer.

Authenticate / Deauthenticate Script.

What is logical name in WinRunner?

Logical name: is the name given by WinRunner when adding an object into the repository. Generally, the logical name can be the label that is displayed on object of the application. WinRunner ensure that there are no other objects with the same logical name in the GUI map.

How do you view the contents of the GUI map?

WinRunner provides us tool GUI Map Editor to edit and view the content of the GUI MAP. The GUI Editor is used to show the content which is stored in the GUI Map. We can start the GUI Map Editor from the Tools Menu in WinRunner. The GUI Map Editor displays the various GUI Map files create the objects learned in to them with their logical name and physical description while recording of the script.

How do you configure GUI map?

-When WinRunner learns the description of a GUI object, it does not learn all its properties. Instead, it learns the minimum number of properties to provide a unique identification of the object.

-Many applications also contain custom GUI objects. A custom object is any object not belonging to one of the standard classes used by WinRunner. These objects are therefore assigned to the generic “object” class. When WinRunner records an operation on a custom object, it generates obj_mouse_ statements in the test script.

-If a custom object is similar to a standard object, you can map it to one of the standard classes. You can also configure the properties WinRunner uses to identify a custom object during Context Sensitive testing. The mapping and the configuration you set are valid only for the current WinRunner session. To make the mapping and the configuration permanent, you must add configuration statements to your startup test script.

What is the purpose of GUI spy?

Using the GUI Spy, you can view the properties of any GUI object on your desktop. You use the Spy pointer to point to an object, and the GUI Spy displays the properties and their values in the GUI Spy dialog box. You can choose to view all the properties of an object, or only the selected set of properties that WinRunner learns.

What is the purpose of loading WinRunner Add-Ins?

Add-Ins: are small programs or files which can be added to computer in order to enhance the capabilities of the system. The purposes of loading Add-Ins into WinRunner are following:

– To increase capabilities of the system.

– To improve the graphics quality, communications interface.

– To load the particular function into the memory.

– To excess only those function which are required for the execution of the script.

What type of exceptions are available in WinRunner?

There are following types of exceptions available in the WinRunner:

– Pop-Up Exceptions: it handles unexpected pop-ups during the execution.

– TSL Exceptions: it responds to specific error codes returned by WinRunner

– Object Exceptions: Handles unexpected changes occurring to the objects in AUT.

– UAE Exceptions: Handling situations as division by zero or null pointers using the function.

These Exceptions can be found in Tools Menu -> Exception Handling -> Select the Exception Type

How do you manually capture an Object using WinRunner?

We can manually add an object to a GUI map file by copying the description of another object, and then editing it as needed. To manually add an object to a GUI map file. We follow the following steps:

– Choose Tools > GUI Map Editor to open the GUI Map Editor.

– Choose View > GUI Files.

– Choose File > Open to open the appropriate GUI map file.

– Select the object to use as the basis for editing.

– Click Add to open the Add dialog box.

How can you integrate your automated scripts from TestDirector?

In WinRunner, we can save tests directly to your TestDirector database. When creating a test case with the TestDirector we can declare that our script is automated or manual. When script is automated then TestDirector creates a skeleton for the script which can be modified.

TestDirector stores test and defect information in a project. We can create TestDirector projects in Microsoft Access, Oracle, Sybase, or Microsoft SQL. These projects store information related to the current testing project, such as tests, test run results, and reported defects.

To access the project connect it to the Web server where TestDirector is installed. When WinRunner is connected to TestDirector we can save a test by associating it with the Test Plan Manager.

What is the difference between GUI map and GUI map files?

The GUI map is group of one or more GUI map files. We can organize GUI map files in two ways:

– Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application.

– GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created.

-GUI Map file is a file which contains the GUI Objects and windows learned by the WinRunner while recording the testing script with the logical name and physical properties of the objects.

How does WinRunner handle varying window labels?

The Varying window labels problem can be solved by using the regular expressions. Regular expressions enable WinRunner to identify objects with varying names or titles. We can use regular expressions in Test Script Language statements. A regular expression is a string. Regular expression is followed by an exclamation mark. We use special characters such as a period (.), asterisk (*), caret (^), and brackets ([ ]), by this we can generate the conditions of the search. For example, the string “!hit.*” matches both “rohit” and “hit”.

How do you analyze test results in Winrunner tool and report the defects?

When you finish any test in WinRunner, WinRunner displays the results in a report format. The report logs the general information about the test run I.e date, operator mode and total run time. Also the report details all the major events that occurred during the run, such as checkpoints, error messages, system messages, or user messages. Mismatch can be found in the report panel by seeing the actual result and the expected result. If a test run fails due to a defect in the application being tested, you can report information about the defect directly from the Test Results window. This information is sent via e-mail to the quality assurance manager, who tracks the defect until it is fixed.

What is the purpose of set_window command?

Set_Window command sets the focus to the specified window. We use this command to set the focus to the required window before executing tests on a particular window.

Syntax: set_window(<logical name>, time);

The logical name is the logical name of the window and time is the time the execution has to wait till it gets the given window into focus.

Example:

set_window (“Print”, 12);

button_press (“OK”);

The set_window statement indicates that the Print window is the active window.

The OK button is learned within the context of this window. If you program a test manually, you need to enter the set_window statement then the active window changes. When editing a script, take care not to delete necessary set_window statements.

How many recordings methods are there in WinRunner?

There are two modes of recording in WinRunner:

-Context Sensitive: Context Sensitive mode records actions performed on the application being tested in terms of the GUI objects, like windows, buttons. In this recording mode, the location of the object in the screen doesn’t have any effect. When we perform an operation on the application to be tested, a script is generates know as Test Script Language (TSL). TSL tell us which object is selected and what operation is performed on it.

-Analog Context Sensitive: In Analog recording mode we can records mouse clicks and movement of mouse. It is used when application window position changes. When the test script is executing, WinRunner retraces the mouse movement. We use Analog recording mode when mouse movement is important, like when testing a drawing application or digital signature checking.

Explain data parameterization in WinRunner?

It is the process of making use of different values in place of recorded values which is replaced by variable which contains different values that can be used during the execution of the scripts. It also reduces the size of the scripts. Parameterization is used when the values and the label of the window changes after every execution like we want to test the application in which order no is involved which is always incremented by 1. Then, in that case we use data parameterization.

When do you use Verify/Debug/Update Modes?

WinRunner provides three modes in which to run test:

-Verify: Use to compares the actual result and expected response. If the actual result is different from the expected result then this is captured and saved as verification result.

-Debug: Use the Debug mode to help you identify bugs in a test script. Verify mode and debug mode are same but the only differences between these two are debug results are always saved in the debug folder and only one set of debug results is stored.

-Update mode: It is used when we want to update or change the expected result.O

What is the use of Test Director testing tool?

TestDirector is Mercury Interactive’s software test management tool. It helps quality assurance personnel plan and organize the testing process. With TestDirector you can create a database of manual and automated tests, build test cycles, run tests, and report and track defects. You can also create reports and graphs to help review the progress of planning tests, running tests, and tracking defects before a software release.

How to integrate automated scripts from TestDirector to Winrunner Scripts?

When you work in WinRunner and create any test script you have option to save it directly to Test Director test repository.

Or while creating a test case in the TestDirector we can specify whether the script in automated or manual. And if it is automated script then TestDirector will build a skeleton for the script like TSL(Test Script language) of winrunner that can be later modified into one which could be used to test the application.

What are the reasons that WinRunner fails to identify GUI object?

WinRunner fails to identify an object in a GUI due to various reasons.

The object is not a standard windows object.

If the browser used is not compatible with the WinRunner version, GUI Map Editor will not be able to learn any of the objects displayed in the browser window.

What do you mean by the logical name of the object?

When you click an object, WinRunner assigns the object a logical name, which is usually the object’s text label. The logical name makes it easy for you to read the test script. For example, when you selected the Order No. check box,

WinRunner recorded the following statement in WinRunner TSL:

button_set (“Order No.”, ON);

“Order No.” is the object’s logical name.

An object’s logical name is determined by its class. In most cases, the logical name is the label that appears on an object.

If the object does not have a name then what will be the logical name?

If the object does not have a name then the logical name could be the attached text.

What is contained in the GUI map?

– WinRunner stores information it learns about a window or object in a GUI Map. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object’s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested. Each of these objects in the GUI Map file will be having a logical name and a physical description.

– There are 2 types of GUI Map files.

-Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application

-GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created.

How does WinRunner recognize objects on the application?

WinRunner uses the GUI Map file to recognize objects on the application. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object’s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested.

Have you created test scripts and what is contained in the test scripts?

Yes I have created test scripts. It contains the statement in Mercury Interactive’s Test Script Language (TSL). These statements appear as a test script in a test window. You can then enhance your recorded test script, either by typing in additional TSL functions and programming elements or by using WinRunner’s visual programming tool, the Function Generator.

Have you performed debugging of the scripts?

Yes, I have performed debugging of scripts. We can debug the script by executing the script in the debug mode. We can also debug script using the Step, Step Into, Step out functionalities provided by the WinRunner.

How do you run your test scripts?

We run tests in Verify mode to test your application. Each time WinRunner encounters a checkpoint in the test script, it compares the current data of the application being tested to the expected data captured earlier. If any mismatches are found, WinRunner captures them as actual results.

Why don’t we normally load the GUI maps through start up scripts?

-If we are using a single GUI Map file for the entire AUT then the memory used by the GUI Map may be much high.

-If there is any change in the object being learned then WinRunner will not be able to recognize the object, as it is not in the GUI Map file loaded in the memory. So we will have to learn the object again and update the GUI File and reload it.

How do you unload the GUI map?

We can use GUI_close to unload a specific GUI Map file or else we call use GUI_close_all command to unload all the GUI Map files loaded in the memory.

Syntax: GUI_close(<file_name>); or GUI_close_all;

You can also use GUI_unload and GUI_unload_all functions to unload loaded GUI map files.

What is the use of GUI map and what happens when GUI map file get loaded?

When we load a GUI Map file, the information about the windows and the objects with their logical names and physical description are loaded into memory. So when the WinRunner executes a script on a particular window, it can identify the objects using this information loaded in the memory.

How do you copy and move objects between different GUI map files?

We can copy and move objects between different GUI Map files using the GUI Map Editor. The steps to be followed are:

Choose Tools > GUI Map Editor to open the GUI Map Editor.

Choose View > GUI Files.

Click Expand in the GUI Map Editor. The dialog box expands to display two GUI map files simultaneously.

View a different GUI map file on each side of the dialog box by clicking the file names in the GUI File lists.

In one file, select the objects you want to copy or move. Use the Shift key and/or Control key to select multiple objects. To select all objects in a GUI map file, choose Edit > Select All.

Click Copy or Move.

To restore the GUI Map Editor to its original size, click Collapse.

What are the virtual objects and how do you learn them?

You can teach WinRunner to recognize any bitmap in a window as a GUI object by defining the bitmap as a virtual object.

You can create virtual push buttons, radio buttons, check buttons, lists, or tables, according to the bitmap’s behavior in your application. If none of these is suitable, you can map a virtual object to the general object class.

-Applications may contain bitmaps that look and behave like GUI objects. WinRunner records operations on these bitmaps using win_mouse_click statements. By defining a bitmap as a virtual object, you can instruct WinRunner to treat it like a GUI object such as a push button, when you record and run tests.

-Using the Virtual Object wizard, you can assign a bitmap to a standard object class, define the coordinates of that object, and assign it a logical name.

What is the use of Virtual Object Wizard and how it is used?

To define a virtual object using the Virtual Object wizard:

Choose Tools > Virtual Object Wizard. The Virtual Object wizard opens. Click Next.

In the Class list, select a class for the new virtual object. If rows that are displayed in the window. For a table class, select the number of visible rows and columns. Click Next.

Click Mark Object. Use the crosshairs pointer to select the area of the virtual object. You can use the arrow keys to make precise adjustments to the area you define with the crosshairs. Press Enter or click the right mouse button to display the virtual object’s coordinates in the wizard. If the object marked is visible on the screen, you can click the Highlight button to view it. Click Next.

Assign a logical name to the virtual object. This is the name that appears in the test script when you record on the virtual object. If the object contains text that WinRunner can read, the wizard suggests using this text for the logical name. Otherwise, WinRunner suggests virtual_object, virtual_push_button, virtual_list, etc.

You can accept the wizard’s suggestion or type in a different name. WinRunner checks that there are no other objects in the GUI map with the same name before confirming your choice. Click Next.

What are the modes of script recording in WinRunner ?

There are 2 modes of recording in WinRunner:

Context Sensitive recording records the operations you perform on your application by identifying Graphical User Interface (GUI) objects.

Analog recording records keyboard input, mouse clicks, and the precise x- and y-coordinates traveled by the mouse pointer across the screen.

What is a checkpoint and what are different types of checkpoints?

Checkpoints allow you to compare the current behavior of the application being tested to its behavior in an earlier version.

You can add four types of checkpoints to your test scripts:

GUI checkpoints verify information about GUI objects. For example, you can check that a button is enabled or see which item is selected in a list.

Bitmap checkpoints take a snapshot of a window or area of your application and compare this to an image captured in an earlier version.

Text checkpoints read text in GUI objects and in bitmaps and enable you to verify their contents.

Database checkpoints check the contents and the number of rows and columns of a result set, which is based on a query you create on your database.

Have you performed debugging of the scripts?

Yes, I have performed debugging of scripts. We can debug the script by executing the script in the debug mode. We can also debug script using the Step, Step Into, Step out functionalities provided by the WinRunner.

What is the use of Test Director software?

TestDirector is Mercury Interactive’s software test management tool. It helps quality assurance personnel plan and organize the testing process. With TestDirector you can create a database of manual and automated tests, build test cycles, run tests, and report and track defects. You can also create reports and graphs to help review the progress of planning tests, running tests, and tracking defects before a software release.

Which scripting language used by WinRunner ?

WinRunner uses TSL-Test Script Language (Similar to C)

How many types of Run Modes are available in WinRunner ?

WinRunner provide three types of Run Modes.

Verify Mode

Debug Mode

Update Mode

What’s the verify Mode?

In Verify Mode, WinRunner compare the current result of application to it’s expected result.

What’s the Debug mode?

In Debug Mode, WinRunner track the defects in a test script.

What’s the Execution Arrow ?

Execution Arrow indicates the line of script being executed.

What’s the Synchronization ?

Synchronization is enables you to solve anticipated timing problems between test and application.

What is Rapid Test Script Wizard ?

It performs two tasks.

It systematically opens the windows in your application and learns a description of every GUI object. The wizard stores this information in a GUI map file.

It automatically generates tests base on the information it learned as it navigated through the application.

Which short key is used to freeze the GUI Spy ?

“Ctrl+F3”

How many types of Merging used by WinRunner ?

WinRunner used two types of Merging-

Auto

Manual

What’s a command to invoke application?

Invoke_application

How many types of Bitmap Checkpoints ?

In Winrunner, two types of Bitmap Checkpoints-

For Objects/Windows

For Screen Area

What statement generated by WinRunner when you check any objects ?

Obj_check_gui statement.

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